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K076 Orpheus

deutsch K076 Orpheus

K76 Orpheus

Ballet in three scenes – Orphée. Ballet en trois tableaux – Orpheus. Ballett in drei Bildern – Орфей. Балет в трех сценах – Orfeo. Balletto in tre quadri

Scored for: a) [ (roles): Orpheus, Eurydice, Angel of Death, Apollo, Pluto, Satyr, Leader of the Furies, Leader of the Bacchantes, 4 Friends of Orpheus, 4 Wood spirits, 9 Furies, 8 Bacchantes, 7 Tormented souls (male)] – First edition (Orchestra): Flauti I. II, Arpa, Violini I, Violini II, Viole, Violoncelli, Contrabassi – Piccolo, 2 Flutes. 2 Oboes (2nd doubling Cor Anglais), 2 Clarinets in B b, 2 Bassoons, 2 Horns in F, 2 Trumpets, 2 Trombones (2nd doubling Bass Trombone), Timpani, Harp, String Quintet; b) Performance requirements (orchestra)*: Piccolo Flute, 2 Flutes, 2 Oboes (2nd Oboe = English horn), English horn (= 2nd Oboe), 2 Clarinets in B b, 2 Bassoons, 2 Horns in F, 2 Trumpets in B b, 2 Trombones (2. Trombone = Bass Trombone), Bass Trombone (= 2nd Trombone), Timpani, Harp, 2 Solo Violins, Solo Viola, 4 Solo Violoncellos, Solo Double bass, Strings ([6 = Minimum forces required ] First Violins**, [6 = Minimum forces required ] Second Violins**, [5 = Minimum forces required ] Violas, [4 = Minimum forces required ] Violoncellos***, [3 = Minimum forces required ] Double basses).

* 43 players.

** Divided in three.

*** Divided in two.

Performance practice: 43 musicians are required. Strawinsky originally had in mind a symphony orchestra of standard size, i.e. 60 musicians, for the new ballet. There was however only one stage in New York on which such an orchestra could be supported, the Metropolitan Opera House. The hire fee for this venue at that time was $15,000 for the evening, a sum of money which was too large for Kirstein. He therefore suggested to Strawinsky in a letter of 20th May 1947 that he use a smaller orchestra and alluded to Balanchine, who was thinking along the lines of Apollon. Strawinsky telegraphed back five days later, pacifying Kirstein by remarking that Orpheus only required 43 musicians, of which 24 were strings, while Apollon required 36 strings and therefore even more musicians had to be engaged and put into the pit.

Summary

a) Ballet content according to Strawinsky

[I:] The Thracian singer, Orpheus, mourns the death of his wife, Eurydice. His friends come with gifts of condolence and convey their sympathy to him. – [II:] Orpheus expresses his grief by playing the lyre. – [III:] The Angel of Death appears. He is deeply moved by pity and promises the mourning Orpheus that he will take him to Hades and help him seek Eurydice there. He escorts Orpheus through the gloomy fog between the worlds to the Underworld (Tartarus, Hades). – [IV:] The pair emerges from the fields of fog and enter the darkness of the Underworld. – [V:] The Furies obstruct Orpheus’s path, dance around him with nonsense gestures and threaten him. – [VI:] Orpheus calms them with his song. – [VII:] The tortured ghosts of the Underworld implore him to continue singing because his song of mourning is solace to them. – [VIII:] Orpheus complies, and sings his song to the end, and it puts the lost souls to sleep. – [IX:] Orpheus has succeeded in making the Underworld happy with his song and calming the Furies. Even Hades (Pluto), the god of the Underworld, is touched and is prepared to give Eurydice back to him. The Furies surround him, bind his eyes and bring Eurydice to him. – [X:] Eurydice follows the blind Orpheus through the shadows of the worlds between the worlds. Orpheus cannot look around him nor look at his wife. Eurydice pleads with him so imploringly that Orpheus cannot bear it any more and he tears the blindfold from his eyes. At that moment, Eurydice slips from his arms and falls down dead at his feet. – [XI:] Orpheus appears again in the Overworld. The Angel of Death has taken his lyre from him and in doing so has removed his instrument with which he was able to enchant and give solace to man and beast, the Living and the Dead, as well as to protect himself. – [XII:] In his ceaseless search for his disappeared wife, he offends the female Bacchantes. They fall on him vengefully, kill him and tear him to pieces. – [XIII:] Orpheus is dead but his song lives on. The god Apollo appears in rays of sunlight. He holds Orpheus’s lyre in his hands, lifts it up and thus raises up Orpheus’s immortal song to Heaven.

b) Ballet content for the premiere according to Balanchine and Strawinsky

Sets: First Scene (I-IV): Eurydice’s grave: 2nd Scene (V-XII): in Hades; 3rd Scene (XII): Orpheus’s grave.

Course: [I:] like a; in addition: Orpheus mourns at Eurydice’s grave. He has let his lyre fall to the floor. He also stays with his friends, unmoving. [II:] like a; in addition: When his friends have gone, he picks up his lyre and plays. He then takes the instrument to the grave so that his song might reach Eurydice. A satyr and four forest spirits try in vain to console him. [III:] like a; in addition: The gods have compassion for him, and so the Angel of Death appears. He puts a golden mask on Orpheus before going down to the underworld with him so that Orpheus can neither see nor recognise anything, and it also makes him invulnerable. [IV to VIII:] like a; without additions. [IX:] like a; in addition: Pluto appears with Eurydice, who cannot be seen by Orpheus due to his mask. Pluto forbids him from looking at his wife before they both reach the light of day. [X:] like a; in addition: In the same way as the Angel leads him down, he also leads him out of Hades again. This time however the lyre is not carried by Orpheus but by the Angel of Death. When Orpheus tears the mask from his face as a result of the pair’s mutual desire and Eurydice dies, Orpheus tries in vain to get back his lyre while Eurydice is snatched away by hundred hands. The lyre has disappeared. [XI:] The leader of the Bacchants, who has red hair, followed by a further eight Bacchants, tears the now removed mask away from Orpheus. Orpheus is therefore delivered to the Thracian women defenceless. [XII:] They fall on him and behead him. [XIII:] Apollo kneels at Orpheus’s grave and summons his spirit, and the lyre rises up from the grave wreathed in flowers.

Plot according to Balanchine: Balanchine’s choreography departed from this plot on several counts. It introduced in [II] a satyr and four wood spirits who tried to bring solace to Orpheus in vain. In [III], the Angel of Death must put a golden mask on Orpheus which prevents Orpheus from seeing or recognising anything, but effectively becomes a symbol of his invulnerability. In the same way as the Angel leads him down, he also leads him out of Hades again. This time however the lyre is not carried by Orpheus but by the Angel of Death. When Orpheus tears the mask from his face as a result of the pair’s mutual desire and Eurydice dies, Orpheus tries in vain to get back his lyre while Eurydice is snatched away by a hundred hands. Apollo kneels at Orpheus’s grave and summons his spirit, and the lyre rises up from the grave wreathed in flowers.

Source: The original idea to Orpheus came from Balanchine, and the divisions of the plot was a collaboration between Balanchine and Strawinsky, while the movement titles were created by Strawinsky. The sources used for libretto were a sofar not known classical lexicon and book ten of the Metamorphoses of Publius Ovidius Naso, lines 11-77 for the depiction of the second tragedy of Orpheus and Eurydice, and book eleven, verses 1-60 for the portrayal of Orpheus’s murder by the Maenads, referred to in Ovid’s text as [Zikone] (nurus Ciconum; nurus = young woman) as well as the head and lyre being washed up on Lesbos and their subsequent rescue by Phoebus/Apollo. The backstory (Eurydice’s death from a fatal accident, a snakebite [Ovid X, 1-10], which she incurred, as can be seen in other sources, when she fled from the unwanted pestering of her neighbour, the beekeeper Aristaios, as well as the terrible punishment of the Maenads from the God Dionysos, who then left the area), leaves the scenario of the ballet open. In Ovid’s original, the stories about Orpheus from his marriage up to his being reunited with Eurydice again, are scattered across several books. The murder of Orpheus follows the narration of his reunion with Eurydice in Hades (XI, 61-66) and the description of the punishment of the Maenads by Dionysos/Bacchus, who banishes them and transforms them into trees (XI, 67-84) and who subsequently leaves the area with his better people. In Ovid’s original, the story of Midas follows this, because Midas was indebted by the friendly incorporation of Silenus to the god Dionysos. –

Strawinsky adapted the original story of Orpheus but adopted incorrect elements, however on a smaller scale than elsewhere in other works with plots of Greek mythology. The coarsest is the temporal connection of the Maenad story, which is in Ovid’s version self-standing, with the story of Eurydice and the appearance of the Furies in the Underworld. The result is that the ancient classical mythology gains a skewed sense and loses its logic. The Maenads are young women obsessed with carnality, who only hate Orpheus because after the events with Eurydice, he travels through Thrace and introduces pederasty. The Maenads as a result feel disregarded as women and take their revenge. The Furies on the other hand (in Latin: furiae = the Frenzied) are actually called Erinyes (Greek: the resentful; the Latin term furia comes from the beginning of the 17th Century), and they are pitiless goddesses of revenge. They rise up from Hades and mercilessly follow all transgressors who have committed terrible crimes and have not been discovered as doing so. They are depicted as having torches in their hands and snakes in their hair, and with serious, but rarely ugly faces. Over the course of time, their number was restricted to three. In the later Greek world, they were converted, through a cult of reconciliation to the Eumenides (Greek: the kindly). The Furies, as the voices of inner conscience, in ancient times, were the souls of the murdered who appear to their murderers so that they can no longer find any peace, and thus have no reason, according to their function, to torture Orpheus, as Orpheus had done nothing bad by ancient values. As a result, Strawinsky turns the Furies into the guardians of the Underworld who fight against Orpheus in observing their task of protection, so that he may not break through to the spirits. This again is contrary to the original, as the guardian of the Underworld is not the assembled ranks of Furies but the hellhound Cerberus. Even more contrary to the original is the comparison of the Furies with the Secret Police of the National Socialists, like the Gestapo of Hell, as Strawinsky is said to have described them to the Los Angeles Times (21st September 1947), because the Furies only concerned themselves with those who had committed capital crimes and not with men of a different mentality. One escapes the main misrepresentations of the classical mythology most easily if one understands Balanchine and Strawinsky’s scenario for Orpheus as an Orphic allegory of the present in Greek garb, and does not try to derive from it Classical mythology or late-Roman literature themes. If Tchelitshev had accomplished his identification of Orpheus with Apollo and Dionysos, there would have been nothing left of the myth other than a couple of interchangeable Greek-sounding names. The other remaining differences between the plot based on Ovid and the mythological original are secondary, for instance Orpheus goes down alone, according to the Greek conception, into the realm of Hades, while Strawinsky invents the Angel of Death, whom the Ancient Greeks did not have at all who leads Orpheus down into Hades. In doing so, the Angel of Death has him wear a golden mask before he enters the Underworld, while the original Orpheus does not wear a mask while he descends to the Underworld. After Eurydice is lost, the lyre plays no further role, while in Strawinsky’s version Orpheus loses his lyre to the Angel of Death. Apollo rescues the head of Orpheus and unites it with Eurydice in Hades, while according to the ballet scenario, Orpheus is raised up to God by Apollo. Between the return of Orpheus to the Overworld and his murder by the Maenads, three years pass according to Ovid, in which Orpheus, who is now physically sought after, abstains from any contact with a woman, while according to Strawinsky and Balanchine, Orpheus is killed soon after he comes back to the Overworld.

Orpheus myth: Observations on the Orpheus myth: Orpheus is not in fact one of the sagas of classical antiquity, although he was one of the Argonauts and it was his counter song which overpowered the song of the Sirens, thus saving his friends from death. He is however a mythical figure reaching back into prehistory and is specified as a Thracian singer. The son of the god Apollo and the muse of poets, Calliope, he travelled to Greece where he could soothe and enchant men, beasts, trees and stones with his wonderful song. He gained permission to go into the Underworld in order to win back his dead wife, Eurydice. Since he broke the terms of the agreement, that he was not allowed to look at his wife, who was following him, before they had both reached the light of day, he lost her again. The singer later struggles against the Bacchantes (Maenads, frenzied women that followed Dionysos), who gruesomely tore him to pieces and dismembered him for revenge. His head, which could prophesy the future, was to wash up on Lesbos together with his lyre. – The earliest portrayal of Orpheus reaches back into the middle of the 6th Century BC. In this time, the Ancient Greek religious movement of Orphism was created, named after their benefactor, with their secret doctrines on the creation of the world, life and Death, their acts of purification and concepts of asceticism (Orphic mysteries) and their poetry, which allegedly came from Orpheus himself (Orphic poems: hymns, cosmogony, poems of the Underworld). The Middle Ages saw him as a symbol for the divine shepherd, and from the time of the early Renaissance, he gradually became a world-wide symbol for purity, sobriety and integrity in Europe, in contrast to the drunk and animalistic atmosphere of the followers of Dionysos. The modern art term Orphism, coined in 1912 by the French poet Gustave Apollinaire, is derived from Orpheus, but has nothing to do with the figure from Greek mythology, but describes a specific technique of creation using freely invented methods of realization without any model in reality. The Orpheus material was realized in poetry throughout all the centuries, starting with Ovid and Vergil, and up to his appearance in the operatic repertoire at the end of the 18th Century, he was the most desired operatic material at all, which also yielded the text for the first Italian opera in Florence and at which Monteverdi tried his hand as well as Schütz and Gluck, and after Strawinsky, Hans-Werner Henze.

Construction: Orpheus is a ballet with a plot in three scenes consisting of 11 to 13 sections, depending on one’s counting method, which follow into one another without interruption. Strawinsky did not precede the separate ballet numbers with any numbering because he conceived the ballet, in spite of any division into scenes and acts, as a dramatic unit and not as a number piece. This basically leads to a problem with the numbering, which continues throughout, because Orpheus’s dance (Air de danse) is in two sections, but these two sections are interrupted by an interlude. One either counts these three sections as one, giving 11 numbers in total, as the series of movement durations in the official Strawinsky edition shows, or one counts them as happened later as three numbers, resulting in the final number 13, the secondary effect of which is that the Apotheosis cabbalistically shows that the number 13 is a departure from the twelve-part unit of the earthly world (there are writers that come up with 10 numbers without explaining how they do so).

Representation in key words*

First Act

[I] Orpheus weeps for Eurydice

Lento: 18 bars in an arch form A-B-A1 (A: bars 1-7 = figure 1; B: b. 8-12 = figure 2; A1: b. 13[12]-18 = figure 3) with sections approximately one-and-a-half times bigger. The music is in one part throughout all the sections, at first in the style of an ostinato and then (B+A1) a modified harp cantilena in the Phrygian mode polarised around E as a symbol of the weeping Orpheus. The woodwind is added to the string section in the middle section only. The lines proceed in parallel at times at a set interval apart and with permutating single notes. There is no fugal writing used.

[II] Air de Danse

90 bars in a varied A-A1-B-A2 arch form (A: b. 1-18= figure 4-5; A1: b. 19-36 [37= general pause] = figures 8-12; B: b. 38 [37= general pause]-65 = figures 13-20; A2: b. 66-90 = figures 21-27) with the possibility of A and A1 being grouped together as one unit; in this way, it is a three-part form with a reduction of the range/length in constantly reducing ratios of 5:4 and 9:7. There is clear polarisation around the notes B flat and D. The character is varied between mourning (Orpheus) and laughter (wood spirits), with only small contrast depending on the content, as Orpheus’s mourning is predominant. There are staccato skipping figures to characterize the entries of the wood spirits. Differences in the writing appear for the same reason between the large intervals as an expression of a dire situation and chromaticism in its double function as a general principle of compositional and structural clamping and a special formal technique for its breakthrough. The themes of the A section are followed by a transitional section and varied repetition with a transition to B. The differentiation of A and B is made by means of the removal of the movement of the dance, which is gradually built up in the A section, altered orchestration and new rhythmic and melodic elements in B. Here, violin chords are played with the entry of these teasing characters without long-lasting effect. There is a fast reversion to the atmosphere of mourning of the A section. The instrumentation of A proceeds into the lower registers by means of a gradual displacement of the linked instrumental blocks. In the B section, among others, there are two structural building blocks consisting of diminished broken chords and descending major seconds with permuting alteration of a single note and different length. There is still chromatic ordering of musical sequences and alteration of the mood in B.

[III] L’Ange de la mort et sa danse

59 bars in a two-part form (A: b. 1-36 = figures 28-35; B: b. 37-59 = figures 36-40) in a 3:2 relationship, and thus not a Classical pas de deux, even though it was choreographed as such by Balanchine. The A-section is in many sections in a framing form with repeats of the introductory and final bars. The mood ranges from serious to eerie, the chords are splintered and thematically interrupted by wandering through the instrumental groups. The entire direction of movement is upwards, announcing the singer’s burgeoning but anxious hope. There is sound of the harp in static, repeated chords. It is only in the final bars before the start of the descent into Hades that it changes into a downwards, strongly accented string of semiquavers, as if Orpheus can no longer wait to find the path to the Underworld and proceeds to speed up. The B section consists of a layered, but not uniform string tremolo with a nine-bar trombone solo and a subsequent fifteen-bar trumpet solo on top of it. It can be assumed that the string tremoli, which turn in themselves, suggest the seething mists that separate the Over- and Underworlds. That the two woodwind soli signify the Angel of Death going in front and Orpheus following him, from which first the Angel and then the singer disappear into the fields of fog, is clear. The trumpet solo is constructed from a fanfare figure appearing four times with small episodes interrupting them, which are derived from one another.

[IV] Interlude

34 bars in elaborately counterpoint and fugal technique in five sections (1: b.1-4 = figure 41 1-4; 2: b.5-12 = figure 41 5-42; 3: b.13-18 = figure 43; 4: b. 19-29 = figure 44-45; 5: 30-34 = figure 46). The ten-note row (b2-c sharp2-e1-c1-b1-g1-a flat-c1-a-b flat) appears in four bars, broken up between the violins + violas, second violins + violas, second violins + violoncelli + double bases, violoncelli + double basses, and then developed. From bar 5, sections of the theme are transposed a fifth higher and taken over by the trumpet and trombone. The counterpoint in the violoncelli and double basses is at times symmetrical. Bars 11 and 12 have a transitory function. In the second violins, there are two interlaced tone rows which proceed in the opposite direction. There are chromatic lines in the violas. There is an entire chromatic network throughout up to the end of figure 43. From figure 44 (bar 19), the theme appears anew in a transposed version on F with the melodic material of bars 11 and 12 in the second violins. In the violas, there is a second counterpoint. Thematic stretto. The violoncelli and double basses take up the theme at the same time as the oboes, which have a different rhythm. Up to the end of figure 45, Strawinsky departs from the theme. The string tremoli representing the fog stopped at the beginning of the movement, the wreathes of fog have therefore dispersed. One first hears the Angel of Death (trombone solo) and Orpheus (trumpet solo), and both appear out of the darkness from figure 43, according to the choreographic instruction. Only the trombone solo still plays, as the trumpet solo is now silent. At the beginning of figure 46 (bars 30ff.) after the completion of the contrapuntal thematic development, the mood changes to a threatening one. The interlude, which consists of continuous repeats in the horn quartet accompanied by unison violoncelli and double basses, makes the preparation for the Dance of the Furies. These 5 bars form a self-standing transitional section into the transitional interlude. There are no longer any themes. The alternation of note between F sharp and G sharp in the 2nd and 4th horns stands against the D minor in 1 stand 3 rdhorn. The first Act ends with this sound of double thirds.

[V] Pas de Furies

with repeats, this is 155 bars long and in two sections, each divided into a three-part A-B-A1 form (A: b.1-85 = figures 47-62 [a: b.1-54 + 47-57; b: b.55-68 = figures 58-59; a1: b.69-85 = figures 50 2-52 3+ 61-62]; B: b.86-155 [c: b.86-128 = figures 63-71; d: b. 129-139 = figures 72-73; c1: b.140-155 = figures 74-76]. A and B have equal weight and length, and the structural divisions occur symmetrically in respect to one another: the 1st section (a and c) is the most extended, and the 2nd section (b and d) is the shortest. The first and third sections counted together in both sections are five times as long as both the middle sections. Portrayal of the Underworld itself. The depiction of unrest and suffering is achieved by repetitions of alternating notes, repeated notes or sounds, and pain and suffering through tritones, minor seconds and diminished chords. Pizzicato stabs in the strings against the woodwinds. There are several frameworks for the material. The meaninglessness of a state of everlasting repetition of the same thing again and again (Sisyphus’s futile rolling of his stone, for example) makes up the A section, which stagnates into itself, in comparison with the dance-like, but gradually becoming peaceful, form of movement in the second main section, B. For the first time in the ballet Orpheus, gaps are composed directly into the melodic course of the music, imitating the jerky movements of the Furies. The melodic shapes are constantly varying, at times staccato throughout. The sound world is in piano, but marcato and with some forte or sforzato chords, which disappear immediately. The final 11 bars flow out in an accompanying figure.

[VI] Air de danse (Orphée)

Air de danse (Orphée), Interlude and Air de danse (conclusion) are a structural unit in a framework form 57 + 5 + 10 bars (figures 77-88, 89, 90-91) in a large-scale form A-B-C-B1-D-B2. Air de danse was notated by Strawinsky as being in two sections (b.1-13 = figures 77-79 + b.14-57 = figures 80-88), but was composed in four sections A-B-C-B1 (A: b.1-13= figures 77-79; B: b.14-31 = figures 80-83; C: b.32-41 = figures 84-85; B1: b.42-57 = figures 86-88) and thus is six times as long as the interlude and three times as long as the final section. Corresponding to the appeasing function of the music, the harp at figure A plays soloistically in two parts, accompanied by two string groups made up of a combined solo and tutti string quintet; tutti strings only play certain accented chords; further technical effects are achieved by alternating pizzicato and bowed playing. In B, two oboes playing soloistically and very softly are grouped together with the harp, which now for its part takes on the accompanying role in alternation with the violins and violoncelli. Clearly, the playing Orpheus has been transformed into an Orpheus who sings and accompanies himself on the harp. At this point, C is allotted structurally the function of an interlude of a cadenza/cadence of the instruments, which flows into B1, a variation and at the same time the completion of the B section. Stylistically in the Air, which is titled Grave, there is proximity to the Bachian style of slow movements. There is dialogue between gentleness, moaning, sighing and lamentation. Towards the end of the movement, there is a piling up of sharp intervals and a stagnation of the melodic line.

[VII] Interlude

at only 5 bars, this is the shortest section of the ballet, and functions in the larger form as the D-section interlude in Orpheus’s Dance. Realization of the plot events by means of the intensification of intervals and the dislocation of C minor chords.

[VIII] Air de danse (conclusion)

in terms of the large-scale structure, this movement is B2, a continuation of Orpheus’s dance after the interruption of the interlude. Melodically, the material is based on the B section from figure 80. The oboe melody line is moved to the harp and cor anglais in contrapuntal imitative technique. There are new, trembling fast repetitions of a single staccato note in groups of hemidemisemiquavers only in the clarinet parts, which are added to the contrapuntal web. It is a very dense movement. The feeling of the musical sense is the happy end of Orpheus’s entry by means of the final chord played by the timpani, harp and pizzicato double basses on a pure F major.

[IX] Pas d’action

37 bars after Strawinsky’s double barline separation, in a large-scale structure A-B-B1 (A: b. 1-8 = figures 92-93; B: b.9-12 = figure 94; B1: b.13-37 = figures 95-100) consisting of B sections containing related material and a contrasting A section. Orpheus’s Harp plays only in the A section as two chords several bars apart, at first in the strings, then in strings with woodwinds surrounding them. This represents Orpheus surrounded by the calmed Furies. Structural divisions are A-B-A1-A2. A sequence of melodies with few notes with broken pure F major chordal material. There is a contrasting four-bar B section in three parts, with solo viola and two violoncelli. This clearly represents the two Furies that tie Orpheus’s blindfold. Compositionally, this is depicted by ostinati and repetitions in motoristic semiquaver movement without thematic development, each of the three parts with few notes. In the 2nd violoncello, there are gestural traces of the events: an arch form for the blindfold being put on, and intervals of a second separated by rests for the double knot with checking of the correct position of the blindfold. The B1 section is characterised by a two-part trumpet section with interrupting rests and a motoristic, static semiquaver accompaniment in the violas and violoncelli. This depicts Orpheus waiting and the entrance of Pluto (Hades). There is a short rising bassoon solo at figure 97 3in the natural range of a fifth F to C, presumably conceived as the scene in which Eurydice is led. Pluto’s final instructions. The entry at figure 100 marks the end of the static, motoristic, running string accompaniment, and the trumpets are no longer used. Dislocation of the semiquaver movement, without the strings, in two flutes and two clarinets, superimposition of the broken chord material in two note chords leading rhythmically in parallel in the flute and clarinet parts. This represents the event of the two people reunited and now put on themselves who are abandoned to their emotions. The scene ends with three string chords, an upward double-bass line and a confluence into an uncertain mixture of sounds made up of D-A-F sharp-B-E; this is a depiction of the start of the ascent to the Overworld and an expression of its questionableness.

[X] Pas de deux

83 bars in a framing structure in three or four sections, according to one’s method of counting. The three-section division A-B-A1 (A: b. 1-32 = figure 101-108; B: b. 33-65 = figures 109-117; A1: b. 66-82 = figures 118-121) does not regard the general pause as a division point between sections. The four-section division A-B-A1-A2 (A: b. 1-32 = figure 101-108; B: b.33-65 = figure 109-117; A1: b.66-80 = figures 117-120; A2: b.81-85 = figure 121) regards the music after the general pause as a form of coda. This division also allows the scene to be proportioned using the Golden Section, because the four sections then become smaller in relationship to one another by 1:5, 1:6 and 1:7. The Pas de Deux between Orpheus and Eurydice is the formal and structural centre of the entire ballet and unites in itself all the previous and subsequent thematic elements including the formal ones. There are cluttered changes of meter throughout unlike in any other section of the ballet (A =32 bars = 24 changes; B = 33 bars = 18 changes). After the catastrophe has taken place, there are no further changes of meter. A complete collapse is represented by unison string movement at figure 101 1-2. Orpheus goes ahead and Eurydice follows, depicted by fugue-like imitative technique at figure 101 3ff, retaining the harmonic stepwise movement. Grief and confidence in the A section is turned on its head in the B section to become happiness. Eurydice begins with her rash and careless wooing of Orpheus and dances for him (Balanchine has her play an invisible flute at this point in the choreography). The orchestration, in addition to the strings, flutes, oboes, clarinets and horns, is dominated by a solo duet between the 1st Flute and 1st Clarinet, representing Orpheus and Eurydice. The end of the section is marked by a cadenza-like warning signal from the Angel in the harp over a threatening organ pedal in the split violoncelli, which at the same time dissolves the harmonic density of the section. Bars 65-76 in the A1 section correspond to bars 18ff. in the A section. It appears as if the Angel’s warning was successful, Eurydice has given up her attempts at seduction and things have returned to the way they were in the beginning. The high-rolling in the music reaches fortissimo, which in comparison with the general mezzo dynamic of this ballet is an unprecedented outbreak of feeling, as a representation of the passion which neither can withstand, and the general pause is a representation of Death, awaking in horror, irreversibility, understanding and dumb despair. Large leaps in the peaceful flow of the final 5 bars. Feeling of despair and exhaustion. A two-note chord, C-E flat, in the first violins after the rest becomes the melodic head of the theme of the subsequent Interlude.

[XI] Interlude

10 bars (figures 121-124) in one section with a one-bar transitional flourish, separated by a double barline, into the Pas d’action. Dotted rhythms and upbeats are used to characterise the reverse direction of the action. The harp no longer plays any role. Orpheus is helpless. The curtain of fog, which must be played to and which must be driven through in order to find the way into the Underworld, is impenetrable. At first the trumpets and trombones paint the picture, followed by the oboes and clarinets.

[XII] Pas d’action

90 bars (figures 125-142) dictated by the plot without observable large-scale formal divisions. The division in any case is made by the dynamic levels (forte section bars 1-55 = figures 125-136 3; fortissimo section bars 56-69 = figures 136 4-139 2; Piano section bars 70-90 = figures 139 3-142 7) while avoiding any thematic congruence, or according to motific and aural distinguishing features as an A-B-A1 structure (A: b.1-34 = figures 125-131; B: b. 35-55 = figures 132-136 3; A1: b. 56-90 = figures 136 4-142). The Maenads’ attack and the dismemberment of Orpheus is one section in the plot. The representation is made through the extended use of rests with figures used to characterise the sudden detachment of the smallest motific sections without structural function. Strong dynamics. Additional sharpening of intervals by the use of minor seconds, which are inverted into a different register, becoming major sevenths. Strong layering of thirds, chords containing disturbing notes and the isolated sound of fifths create a hectic, movement of masses of people. Different processes of layering thirds in the form of bitonal and chromatic (D-F against D sharp-F sharp) or chordal couplings (D-F sharp + A sharp-C sharp). Extension of pitches and sound colour up to the highest registers. Taking its cue from the content, the screeching sounds typical of the Maenades overpower the normal music, corresponding to Ovid’s account that the [Zikonen] prevented the dangerous songs of Orpheus’s lyre and Orpheus’s voice from affecting them by the shouting over them. The music flows into units of screaming chords, followed by the repeated breaking up and dismemberment of the remaining parts of Orpheus’s body. Gradually slowing of the Tempo. – [XIII:] Apothéose d’Orphée: 37 bars (figures 143-149) without sectional divisions, but with divisions of musical material and for the plot. Grief for Orpheus becomes the hope for Orpheus and his art, which recalls Apollo’s capacity for remembering. It is not the original, even if it seems to be. Directional movements, the starting note and type of scale are changed from [I]. The harp part in bars 5ff. is similarly mirrored but displaced, and is rewritten from the original Phrygian into the Dorian, twisting the pessimistic downward movement of [I] into the optimistic, transfiguring upward movement of [XIII]. With regard to the hectic nature of the Pas d’action, the peace of the Apotheosis gives the effect of redemption. The movement takes place slowly and solemnly. In the face of future hope, the reality of the past regresses back to what is to come.. All that remains of the lyre of the dead Orpheus is a memory, which interrupts the canonic writing in the horn parts several times.

* Using a scientific paper by Yvonne Kohle‚ Orpheus. Entwicklungsgeschichte, Analyse, Deutung’, 222 pages, Düsseldorf 1993, unpublished.

Structure

First Scene [#] Premier Tableau [Erstes Bild]

[I]

Orpheus weeps for Eurydice. [#] Orphée pleure Eurydice. [Orpheus weint um Eurydice]

He stands motionless, with his back to the audience. [#] Debout, dos au public, il ne bouge pas. [Er steht regungslos mit dem Rücken zum Publikum]

Lento sostenuto Crotchet = 69

(Figure 21 up to the end of Figure 3)

Some friends pass bringing presents and offering him sympathie

Passent des amis avec des présents. Compliments de condoléances

[Freunde kommen mit Gaben vorbei und bekunden ihr Mitgefühl]

(Figure 21)

[II]

AIR DE DANSE

Andante con moto Quaver = 112

(Figure 4 up to the end of figure 27)

[III]

DANCE OF THE ANGEL OF DEATH

L'ANGE DE LA MORT ET SA DANSE

[Tanz des Todesengels]

L'istesso Quaver = 112

(Figure 28 up to the end of figure 40)

The Angel leads Orpheus to Hades.

L'Ange commène Orphée aux enfers.

[Der Engel geleitet Orpheus zur Unterwelt]

Figure 36 1)

[IV]

INTERLUDE

[Zwischenspiel]

Crotchet = Crotchet

(Figure 41 up to the end of figure 46)

The Angel and Orpheus reappear in the gloom of Tartarus.

L'Ange et Orphée réapparaîssent dans les ténèbre du Tartare.

[Der Engel und Orpheus erscheinen wieder in der Dunkelheit der Unterwelt]

(Figure 43 1)

Second Scene [#] Deuxième Tableau [Zweites Bild]

[V]

PAS DES FURIES

their agitation and their threats. [#] leur agitation et leurs menace. [ihre Unruhe und ihre Drohungen,]

Agitato Minim = 126 in plano

(Figure 47 up to the end of figure 61 with a repeat of figure 50 2up to the end of figure

60 4, but omitting the five-bar first-time figure 50 2up to the end of 53 3)

Sempre alla breve ma meno mosso Minim = 98

(Figure 63 up to the end of figure 76 6[ attacca forward to figure 77])

[VI]

AIR DE DANSE

(Orphé)

Grave punktierte Achtel = 63

(Figure 77 [ attacca from figure 76 6] up to the end of figure 79)

Un poco meno mosso Sechzehntel = 96

(Figure 80 up to the end of figure 88 6[ attacca forward to figure 89])

[VII]

INTERLUDE

[Zwischenspiel]

The tormented souls in Tartarus stretch on their fettered arms towards Orpheus, and implore him to continue his song of consolation. [#] Les tourmentés du Tartare tendent leur bras enchaînes* vers Orphée le suppliant de continuer son chant consolant. [Die armen Seelen der Unterwelt strecken ihre gefesselten Arme Orpheus entgegen und flehen ihn an, mit seinem Klagegesang fortzufahren]

L'istesso tempo

(Figure 89 [ attacca from figure 88 6])

[VIII]

AIR DE DANSE

(conclusion)

Orpheus continues his Air [#] Orphée continue son Air. [Orpheus singt sein Lied weiter]

L'istesso tempo

(Figure 90 up to the end of figure 91 5[ attacca forward to figure 92])

[IX]

PAS D'ACTION

Hades, moved by the song of Orpheus, grows calm. The Furies surround him, bin his eyes und return Eurydice to him. [#] L'enfer, touché par le chant d'Orphée, se calme. Les Furies l'entourent, lui couvrent les yeux d'un bandeau et lui rendent Eurydice. [Die Unterwelt, vom Orpheus-Gesang bewegt, beruhigt sich. Die Furien umringen ihn, verbinden ihm die Augen und bringen Eurydice zu ihm]

(Veiled Curtain) [#] (Tulles) [Schleiervorhang]

Andantino leggiadro Quaver = 104

(Figure 92 [ attacca from figure 91 5] up to the end of figure 93)

Poco più mosso Quaver = 126

(Figure 94 up to the end of figure 100 6[ attacca forward to figure 101])

[X]

PAS-DE-DEUX

(Orpheus and Eurydice before the veiled curtain). [#] (Orphée et Eurydice devant les tulles). [Orpheus und Eurydice vor dem Schleiervorhang)

Andante sostenuto Quaver = 96

>* original spelling (instead of correctly >enchaînés<).

(Figure 101 [ attacca from figure 100 6] up to the end of figure 121 5[ attacca forward to

figure 122])

Orpheus tears the bandage from his eyes. Eurydice falls dead.

Orphée arrache de ses yeux le bandeau. Eurydice tombe morte.

Orpheus nimmt die Binde von seinen Augen. Eurydice fällt tot um

(at the end of figure 120 5)

[XI]

INTERLUDE

Veiled curtain, behind which the decor oft the first scene is placed. [#] Tulles, derrière le décor du premier tableau sera remis. [Hinter dem Schleiervorhang erscheint die Dekoration des ersten Bildes]

Moderato assai Crotchet = 72

(Figure 122 [ attacca from figure 121 5] up to the end of figure 124 4[ attacca forward to figure

125])

[XII]

PAS D'ACTION

The Bacchanten attack Orpheus, sieze him and tear him in pieces. [#] Les Bacchantes attaquent Orphée, s'emparent de lui et le déchirent en morceaux. [Die Bachantinnen greifen Orpheus an, töten ihn und reißen ihn in Stücke]

Vivace Crotchet = 152

(Figure 125 [ attacca from figure 124 4] up to the end of figure 142 [ attacca forward to Figure

143])

[XIII]

Third Scene [#] Troisième Tableau [Drittes Bild]

(Figure 143 [ attacca from Figure 142 7] up to the end of figure 149 6)

Orpheus' Apotheosis [#] Apothéose d'Orphée [Orpheus-Apotheose]

Apollo appears. He wrests the lyre from Orpheus and raises his song heavenwards. [#] Apparait Apollon. Il s'empare de la lyre d'Orphée et élève son chant vers les cieux. [Apoll erscheint. Er nimmt die Lyra des Orpheus und erhebt seinen Gesang zum Himmel]

Lento sostenuto Crotchet = 69

Corrections: In the original version, there are several printing errors, for which it remains unclear as to whether they are printing, manuscript or correction errors that were subsequently corrected in a separate, enclosed errata sheet. This contains 22 corrections necessary for performance, which statistically means that there is at least one mistake to every 2 pages of music.

Corrections / Errata

Tables

Full score 76-1

[Appearing in type script with handwritten additions]

1.) page 1, bar 1: in the harp part, près de la table and the staccato markings removed.

2.) page 1, bar 2: sim. Removed.

3.) page 5, bar 4: in the harp part, près de la table and the staccato markings removed, and the same in the following bar, bar 5.

4.) page 9 bar 9 ([Figure 21 2]: natural sign before the B flat in the violoncelli.

5.) page 10 bar 3: change of clef in the ‘cello system from alto clef to treble clef.

6.) page 12, bar 7 [figure 27 2]: only the 1st violins should have an additional con sord. Inserted.

7.) page 13, bar 7 [figure 29 3]: the 1st bassoon part begins with a crotchet rest.

8.) page 24, bar 1 [figure 61 1]: in the 2nd bassoon part, both minims should be lowered from e to e flat.

9.) page 33, bar 9 [ 187]: in the 1st oboe part, the slur should continue up to e flat 2.

10.) page 35, bar 3 [figure 90 3]: in both clarinet parts, the first rest should be written as a semiquaver rest, not a quaver rest.

11.) page 36, bar 9ff. [figure 94]: figure 94 should have the Italian tempo marking poco più mosso [in the corrections printed in later, it is written Poco più mosso ] and the metronome marking quaver = 126 [in the corrections printed later, it is written as usual with the sign for a quaver note].

12.) page 37, bar 2 [figure 96 1]: instead of quaver-semiquaver rest-semiquaver in the third crotchet beat in the 1st and 2nd violins, the rhythm should be semiquaver-semiquaver rest-quaver.

13.) page 41, bar 10 [figure 112 3] the third semiquaver note in the 1st oboe part should be g sharp instead of g. This was even a mistake in the errata, as the third semiquaver note is f sharp, not g sharp. It was meant to refer to the fourth semiquaver note.

14.) page 42, bar 2 [figure 113 4]: the two clarinet and bassoon parts should contain a piano marking p .

15.) page 42, bar 2 [figure 1114]: the 1st bassoon part should read: semiquaver rest + semiquaver a tied to the following quaver a + quaver a.

16.) page 44, bar 1 [figure 119 4]: the metre indication, 3/4, belongs at the beginning of the System.

17.) page 48 bar 9 [figure 1130]: at the beginning of the bar in the viola part, there should be a minim rest, and not a crotchet rest.

18.) page 48, bar 8 [figure 129 3]: the corresponding rhythm in the flutes, bassoons and both first horns should be inverted; instead of semiquaver-semiquaver rest-quaver, it should be quaver-semiquaver rest-semiquaver.

19.) page 48, bar 10 [figure 130 1]: the crotchet rest in the first and in the second crotchet rest should be dotted.

20.) For all pages 57-59 [figure 143 up to the end of figure 149], instead of solo violin, it should read 2 solo violins.

21.) page 57, bar 1 [figure 143 1]: in the harp part, près de la table and the staccato markings should be removed, along with the sim. in the subsequent bar, bar 2 [figure 143 2].

22.) The last issue cannot be made sense of from the score alone, because it refers to the relationship between the score and the parts. The repeat between figure 50 and the end of figure 60 was written out full in the parts, as a result of which rehearsal figure 51 should be replaced by 60A and 52 by 60B.

Full score 76-1 + Pocket score 76-2

1.) figure 8 11st Flute: There should be a crescendo sign < added that continues opening up to the triplet figure, followed by a decrescendo sign > starting from there.

2.) figure 8 2: >4/8 sempre<.

3.) figure 18 21st/2nd Violins: A crescendo sign < should be added between the two systems after the first group of triplets and up to but excluding the last triplet group of the bar.

4.) figure 29 31st Bassoon: quaver rest instead of crotchet rest.

5.) figure 29 3-41st Bassoon: a slur from the trill note f figure 29 3to the trill note 29 4should be inserted.**

6.) figure 31 5-62nd Bassoon + 4th Horn: the phrasing mark should not be from the first to the last note of the bar, rather only from the first to the second note, or (Bassoon 2:) from the first triplet G to the dotted quaver c sharp.

7.) figure 34 3Harp discant: treble clef before the 1. note.

8.) figure 56 5above 1. Oboe: > s ƒ p < instead of > poco s ƒ p <.

9.) figure 57 4-5above and below 1. Clarinet: decrescendo-sign > from the middle of the bar figure 57 4 to the end of the bar figure 57 5should be inserted.

10.) figure 61 41st Clarinet: a descrescendo-sign > should be added to minim a; the same applies to 61 41st note b.

11.) figure 62 11st clarinet: minim b has to be marked with an accent (>).

12.) figure 67 1: metronome marking dotted quaver = 63.

13.) figure 67 4+5Harp Bass: all notes e instead of e b .

15.) figure 84 41st Oboe: 1., 3., 4., and 5. note have to be marked with accents (>); 2nd Oboe: 1. and 4. note have to be marked with accents (>).

17.) figure 90 3Clarinets: the first rest should be written as a semiquaver rest, not a quaver rest.

18.) figure 91 21st Oboe: a slur from the 1st note of the bar [semiquaver d b 2] to the last note of the bar figure 91 1should be inserted.

19.) figure 94 1: tempo and metronome marking Più mosso quaver = 132.°

21.) figure 107 21st Violin: a flat in round brackets should be added to the third but last note [f#1 instead of f1].**

22.) figure 107 32nd Violin: bracket natural has to be added to the 1st note [f1].**

23.) figure 113 11st Oboe: semiquaver ligature c#3-b2-b2-b2 instead of d#3-c#3-c#3-c#3.]**

24.) figure 117 1-21st Clarinet: the two large phrasing marks should be removed and replaced by small phrasing marks from the 1st to the 2nd note of the last set of triplets in the bar of figure 117 1 [d b 1 to a b 1], from the 1st to the 2nd note of the 2nd set of triplets in figure 117 2[a b 1 to e] and from the 1st to the 2nd note of the 3rd set of triplets in figure 117 2 [d1 to a b 1]. The 2nd and 5th note of the triplet in figure 117 1(semiquavers f1 and c b 1) and the 2nd, 3rd, 6st and 9th note of the triplet in figure figure 117 2(semiquavers d1, d b 1, f1, g) should be marked with a staccato dot.

25.) 117 2red before bar >marc.<, below 1st note quaver d an accent >, from the triplet >pres de la table<.

26.) figure 121 4: >a tempo< has to be removed.

27.) figure 126 3Clarinets systems: >ƒ< instead of > m ƒ<.

28.) figure 126 41st Clarinet: quaver d#1 has to be marked with staccato (dot).

29.) figure 126 4systems 2nd Clarinet / 1st Bassoon: >ƒ< instead of > m ƒ<.

30.) figure 127 1: >sempre ƒ< has to be added.

31.) figure 128 4systems 1st Trumpet, 1st/2nd Trombone: the first values semiquaver-semiquaver rest-quaver instead of quaver-quaver-quaver.

32.) figure 132 2Double bass: > s ƒ< has to be added to the quaver c#s.

33.) figure 132 3Double bass: > s ƒ< has to be added to the 2. semiquaver B.

34.) figure 134 2Violoncello: >ƒ< after the 2. crotchet.

35.) figure 134 2Double bass: >ƒ< after the 2. crotchet.

36.) figure 134 4Violoncello: >ƒ< has to be added at the beginning of the semiquaver ligature.

37.) figure 134 4Double bass: >ƒ< has to be added at the beginning of the semiquaver ligature.

38.) figure 137 31st/2nd Horn: the last two-note chord crotchet b1-f2 instead of crotchet f1-b1.

39.) figure 137 31st/2nd Trumpet: the last two-note chord crotchet a1-c#3 instead of crotchet c2-a2.*

40.) figure 137 41st/2nd Horn, two-note chords: should be b1-f2 + e1-e2 + b1-f2 +b1-f2 + e1-e2 instead of f1-b1 + e1-e2 + f1-b1 + f1-b1 + e1-e2.*

41.) figure 137 41st/2nd Trumpet, two-note chords: should be f2-a2 + d2-b2 + a2-c3 + a2-c3 + d2-b2 instead of c2-a2 + d2-b2 + c2-a2 + c2-a2 + d2-b2.*

42.) figure 137 51st/2nd Horn, two-note chords: should be b1-f2 + g1-b1 instead of f1-b1 + g1-b1.*

43.) figure 137 51st/2nd Trumpet, the first 3 values: should be a2-c#3 + d2-f#2 + d#2-f#2 instead of c2-a2 + d2 +d#2-f#2.*

44.) figure 139 1-2Timpani: quaver rest - semiquaver ligature c-c - quaver e b - quaver rest – crotchet rest - quaver rest - semiquaver ligature c-c | - quaver e b - quaver rest - quaver rest – semiquaver ligature c-c - quaver e b - dotted crotchet rest instead of quaver rest – semiquaver ligature c-c - quaver e b - quaver rest.

* Annotation also in pocket score (green).

** Pocket score. No annotation in the full score.

Style: Strawinsky characterises the events in the plot either as foreground or background, meaning that compositionally identical moments can have different expressive value, such as the use of rests. Rests are composed into the ballet music beyond their normal functions, for example, indicating the ends of phrases or giving breathing possibilities, as a structural element,. In the Dance of the Furies, they support the threatening and agitated gestures of the Furies, and in the dance of the Bacchantes, they portray the dismemberment of Orpheus; in the abortive return back from the Underworld, a general pause signifies Eurydice’s second and final death. If this was not historically impossible, one would be tempted to say that Strawinsky knew the entire plethora of rhetorical figures of baroque text setting, from the suspiratio (sighing rest) and the Tmesis (separating rest, from the Greek ‘to cut up’) to the Aposiopesis (a pause which shows the ending). –

The ballet incorporates later Neo-Classicism with an evocative interplay between plot and music whilst maintaining compositional individuality. The dynamic level remains almost exclusively in the region of piano and mezzoforte with additional sforzati. There is neither a sustained pianissimo nor forte throughout, however there are a few pianissimo effects in the strings in the first Interlude, a temporary forte in the Dance of the Furies, and separate chordal stabs with ¦¦ and ¦¦¦ markings in the attack of the Bacchantes. The Apotheosis also has piano and mezzopiano markings throughout. The Orpheus ballet contains no humorous scenes or corresponding single scenes, and no caricatures or contradictory interpretation, which Strawinsky had been using constantly even in tragic contexts up to that point. The ballet has, for the first time in any of Strawinsky’s works, a melancholic, pessimistic basic mood, which first appeared in the Basel Concerto, but had not yet established itself. The orchestration is like chamber music, not orchestral. The combination of the small groups is dependent upon the situation in the plot. It is only at the dismemberment of Orpheus that there is a tutti. The harp is assigned to Orpheus. The brass instruments, trumpet and trombone, play in different situations throughout, but are silent at Orpheus’s large entrances, as if they are listening to his song. The solo trombone and solo trumpet correspond to certain entries of the Angel of Death and Orpheus. The woodwinds are, with the exception of the framing movements, used in all types of ways, but are especially used to describe the characters and situations, likewise the timpani in the entrances of the Furies and Bacchantes. The music of Orpheus is consciously written by Strawinsky to be predominantly dark and even threatening, and in being so corresponds to the established conception of the Underworld. Strawinsky however also placed value on its smoothness, because the scene takes place in darkness. He wanted through this to express that in the darkness contrasts are increased, and he suggests this compositionally and in the orchestration. Strawinsky defines the place and time musically. Orpheus finds himself in the course of the ballet at different places at different times, on the Earth, on the way to the Underworld, under the Earth, on the path back into the Overworld and again on the Earth. This cycle of places, which apart from the finality of Eurydice’s second death, has no effect on the final situation, logically is created by the temporal identity of [I] and [XIII]. Strawinsky captures the three time zones before, in and after the Underworld by means of different tonal polarisations and motific formations. Musical figures such as C-B-F, intervallic constructions such as B flat-D flat become structurally definitive for the scenes before the descent. In unfolding the B flat-D flat interval melodically, Strawinsky creates the starting notes of the theme of the fugue. All the music of the Underworld on the other hand is polarised around F, especially Orpheus’s entrances, which develop at times in F major or F minor, or generally in mixed forms of the two. After Orpheus turns round in the plot, the characteristic B-D flat interval is reorganised registrally. As a result, the identical interval accommodates another emotional content. The central section of composition inside the composition is the Pas de deux between Orpheus and Eurydice, which is also the structural centre, and which at the same was written dramaturgically correctly at the temporal centre of the work. This number can therefore be characterised just as much as an entity in itself, which is synthetically constructed out of the elements of the others, as the structural centrepiece out of which single structures are taken, and the various other movements are derived individually from this. The allocations are, as it is Strawinsky’s style, scarcely adhered to. In [I], the quaver movement throughout and static [liegenbleiben] ostinato notes bind the Pas de deux; in [II], fast scalic run and the structural B flat-D flat; in [III] the broken 6/4 chord; in [IV] the one-voice opening and fugal manner of construction; in [V] the chromatic structure and the staccato technique; in [VI-VIII] the rhythmic motif and fugal writing; in [IX] the rhythmic motif and chromatic motif of alternating notes; in [XI] the fugal writing and the structural C-E flat motif; in [XII] the staccato and broken-chord techniques and the chromatic motif of alternating notes; in [XIII] the rhythmic motif and fugal construction. Alongside this, there is a second manner of functional interweaving, developed through overreaching motific writing, which binds together separate movements between one another in terms of compositional construction, creating reference points of meaning. When Strawinsky also condemned the Wagnerian technique of the Leitmotif, he was working on Orpheus himself again with motific techniques that reach across the separate movements, which interpret aligned moments of mood, create musical connections and enable structural links. This includes not only the melodic writing in the harp of Orpheus, which is a leitmotif throughout, and certain moments of characterisation achieved through instrumentation, colour and gesture, which are defined by the plot, but also the more important elements of proportionality, framing devices and correspondences of tempo and dynamic. For example, the two interruptions of the Fugue in the Apotheosis are formed in this way (bars 14 and 15 = figure 145 5+6and 25 and 26 = figure 147 5-6), with which Strawinsky cuts through the horn fugue twice ‘as if with a pair of scissors’, as he explained to Nabokov in his Christmas visit in 1949 in Beverly Hills, a memory of the song of the now dead Orpheus, which has faded away and of which only the accompaniment lives on. – The theme of Rossignol, to overcome Death by music, seems to be taken up again, this time however at the price of a self-inflicted, but at the same time excusable, failure caused by love. The actual failure however is not the death of Eurydice, rather, the emphasis is shifted to the extreme circumstances of Orpheus’s death. In his musical version, Strawinsky followed much more strongly the mythological originals than in the scenario, in which he had to take Balanchine into consideration and in which he was not able to make clear crucial plot points. The attack of the Maenads is made, according to Ovid’s depiction, with missiles, branches and stones. This attack from distance does not succeed however. Orpheus has his lyre and plays. His song makes the branches gather round him but not injure him, and the stones soften and fall down in a circle before him. The Maenads are powerless. They now pit music against music. They begin to screech horribly and to shout more and more loudly, so that they overpower Orpheus’s singing. Orpheus can no longer be heard, and his songs therefore become ineffective. Nearby, farmers are ploughing with their cattle. In the face of the inferno of noise made by the wild mob, they cast aside their tools and flee horrified, leaving their animals behind. The Maenads arm themselves with hoes and slaughter first the cattle and then Orpheus, who no longer has anything with which he could defend himself. Orpheus’s head is washed, along with his lyre, into the river Hebrus (today, the Maritza), and thence into the sea and [fittingly] to Lesbos, the centre of lesbianism, and the lyre begins to play softly in the wind while they are approaching and the dead tongue still lisps to itself. When the head and lyre are washed ashore and a snake tries to bite, Apollo intercedes. Since their murder also breaks the laws of Dionysos, the Maenads are punished awfully. They lose their freedom to move and their human feelings. The event itself of setting music, better: noise against music is represented by Strawinsky by a screaming in the flutes which overpowers Orpheus’s harp music and makes it fall silent. The silence yields to the noise, sober-mindedness to overflowing hatred, idealistic existence to reality, and with it, optimism to pessimism. The Apotheosis, his transfiguration at the end into divinity, virtually amounts to a theatrical self-calming against this background. It is also a capitulation in the face of a world from which justice must flee, in order to resettle in an afterlife of whatever form, whence it throws points of lights onto the Earth. Five years later, Strawinsky left all these considerations behind him and after his bitter experience gained from his court trial that there is no justice in this life he devoted himself completely to theologically orientated music.

Dedication: There is no dedication indicated.

Duration: 29' 41". – The duration of Orpheus is defined , as with other pieces, basically according to the ideal time for the production of a recording, which therefore lends Strawinsky’s own recordings a special significance. The duration is always dependent on the interpretation and remains stated approximately with a circa. The performance duration can be defined exactly to the split-second by taking into account the number of single beats and the metronome markings. The result (rounded to the millisecond: I: 2’ 5’’; II: 3’ 10’’; III: 2’ 7’’; IV: 1’ 49’’; V: 2’ 56’’; VI:2’ 31’’; VII: 0’ 24’’; VIII: 1’ 15’’; IX[error in German text]: 1’ 47; X: 4’ 36’’; XI: 0’ 33’’: XII: 2’ 22’’; XIII: 2’ 09’’) shows a five-part formal symmetry 5:7:4:7:5 consisting of I-II (5), III-V (7), VI-VIII (4), IX-X (7) and XI-XIII (5), which also corresponds to the five-part symmetry of the plot: I-II as the Prelude/Introduction = Lento + Air de Danse = Orpheus Folk Scene, counterbalanced by XI-XIII as the Postlude = Interlude + Pas d’action + Lento (Apotheosis) = scene of the Furies and the scene of Apollo, with the self-contained, calming singing of Orpheus in the Underworld, including the interruption and completion, forming the middle section of the ballet VI-VIII = Air de danse + Interlude + Air de danse conclusion, and the two main sections lying between III-V = Pas de deux [The Angel of Death] + Interlude + Dance of the Furies and VIII-IX = Dance of the Furies + Pas de deux. Orpheus opens up, like all the other later compositions, extensive possibilities for games with numerical proportions, without wishing to imply that interpretations of that type are correct and should not be construed as being a corollary. A particular example for this can be seen in the three- or four-part sequence, depending on one’s method of counting, in Orpheus’s song with Interlude and Conclusion at figures 77-91.

Duration according to Strawinsky’s annotations: 1. scene = 2’ 18”; Air de Danse up to the end of figure 12 = 1' 23", end figure 20 = 3 1/2"; L'ange de la mort et sa danse : without annotation; Interlude: without annotation; Dance of the furies: up to the end of figure 63 = 1'31", up to the end of figure 76 = 1' 35"; Air de danse: end figure 79 = 0' 28", end figure 88 = 2' 13"; Interlude: 0' 27"; Air de Danse: 0' 45"; Pas d'action: up to the end of figure 93 = 0' 30", end figure 100 = 1' 21"; Pas de deux: end figure 108 = 2' 09, end figure 121 = 2' 50"; Interlude: 1’ 13"; Pas d'action figure 142 end 2’ 30; 3. Scene: 2’ 22“.

Date of origin: Hollywood 20th October 1946 up to 26th September 1947.

History of origin: The original idea came, as Strawinsky explained in a radio interview on 1st November 1949, from Balanchine, who met with Strawinsky over the summer of 1946 in order to settle the details of the plot and the durations of the separate movements. Strawinsky was able to start work after the completion of the Concerto for String Orchestra to be written for Paul Sacher, so after 8th August. On 20th October 1946, Strawinsky wrote the first bars of Orpheus, and the woodwind chords of what would become figure 2. In the Christmas week of 1946, Balanchine again came to Hollywood, where they worked through the first sketches. It was from this time that the much-quoted anecdote from Anatole Chujoy comes. By 14th March 1947, Strawinsky had completed the Lento and Airs de Danse, and on 5th April, he began work on the Dance of the Angel of Death. Thirteen days later, he had already completed two thirds of the ballet, as he wrote to Ralph Hawkes in a letter of 18th April. One day later, he wrote to Nadia Boulanger that he had completed two thirds of the work including the orchestration. Strawinsky even had in mind a première in the autumn at the end of November, but was evidently in poor health. For this reason, and in order to be able to complete the ballet, he undertook no tour of Europe in 1947. On 10th May 1947, he was sketching figures 98 and 112 from the Pas d’action and the Pas de deux. If he had been working chronologically, he would have composed in one month, the Dance of the Angel of Death, the Interlude, the scene with the calming of the Furies and the Airs de danse with interlude. He had presumably, in his style of musical montage, at least compiled the separate sections in a dislocation process; this is suggested by the simultaneity of the composition of the two figures, the dating of which is certain. In the middle of the year, there was to be a further meeting between him and Balanchine, at which they set in stone the durations with a stopwatch. On 8th July 1947, he completed the final interlude. From the available dates, it can be construed that he was working on the Pas de deux and on the Interlude for almost two months and that he was never interrupted from his work to any extent worth mentioning. It is not unusual in Strawinsky’s compositional history that certain sections of a composition would occupy him for an excessively long period of time, in comparison with the entire period of composition. On 18th July 1947, he informed Kirstein that he was working uninterruptedly on Orpheus and thought he would in all likelihood finish it at the beginning of September. On 15th September, Strawinsky found himself at the final movement, and on 26th September 1947 finally, after more than a year of intensive work, he completed the score of Orpheus , and he informed Ralph Hawkes of this on the same day with ‘Glad to tell you’. The corrections of the score and parts were made by Robert Craft. On 16th October, Kirstein had the orchestral score in his possession and was overjoyed with the completed work, apologising at the same time that he had not yet paid the remaining fee of 2,500 dollars, which took place without delay.

First performance: 28. April 1948*, City Center of Music and Drama in New York, Nicolas Maggalanes (Orpheus), Maria Tallchief (Eurydice), Francisco Moncion (Angel of Death), Tanaquil Le Clerc (Leader of the Bacchantes), Beatrice Tompkins (Leader of the Furies), Herbert Bliss (Apollo) and the Ensemble of the Ballet Society New York, costumes and stage design by Isamu Noguchi, choreography by George Balanchine under the direction of Igor Strawinsky –

The evening of the première began with Strawinsky’s Renard. Then followed the Elegy for solo viola. After Orpheus, it finished with the arrangement of Mozart’s Sinfonia concertante. The evening was so successful for the ballet troupe that Morton Baum, the Chairman at the time of the Executive Committee in charge of the City Center of Music and Drama offered Kirstein and Balanchine that their ballet ensemble be incorporated as a regular ensemble, with an agreement of 20 years of support into their company. This is how it was that the Ballet Society at the New York City Center, which Kirstein had founded in 1946 together with E. M. Warburg, became the soon-to-be-famous New York City Ballet, which made its debut on 11th October 1948, dancing Orpheus again at this opportunity as well as the Symphonie en Ut. Kirstein had become General Director and Balanchine, whom Kirstein had brought to America in 1933 and who had been treated extraordinarily badly in Paris, with bureaucratic disdain, a sort of chief choreographer who in the course of his life oversaw more than thirty Strawinsky productions. Kirstein recognised to what extent he was indebted to Strawinsky’s Orpheus, and refered to the ballet as a real part of his life in a letter of 11th January 1949. On the other hand, Strawinsky who was at that time in a rather depressive phase of his life, expressed his thanks for Kirstein’s efforts on behave of his music on 28th October 1948 with ‘Bravo, archibravo’.

* The date of the second performance on 29th April 1948 in the Hunter College Playhouse in New York is confused in several places in the Strawinsky literature with the date of the première.

Choreography: According to Kirstein’s original wishes, Pavel Tchelitshev was to design and produce the scenery. Kirstein regarded him as the greatest painter of his generation. Tschelitshev failed both on account of the projected costs of the one-hundred-thousand dollars, which his set would cost, as well as the inconsiderate manner of his actions, which was to dismiss Kirstein and Balanchine’s concept for Orpheus point-blank as wrong and to attempt to tell the story of Orpheus as the story of a man and his soul, in which Orpheus should be Bacchus and Apollo, and not the main dancer of the ballet. The sum was ludicrous for the circumstances of a free troupe and it would have been impossible to realize under the circumstances of the time even if they had wanted to. Tchelitshev’s conception of Orpheus, a long way from what Kirstein, Balanchine and Strawinsky had come up with amongst themselves, basically put him in a hopeless position. As Kirstein described the situation to Strawinsky in a letter of 16th October 1947, the supposition could not be ignored that Tschelitshev himself had not been seriously interested for a long time. Kirstein then brought the Frenchman André Beaurepaire into the picture, who was highly regarded by Cocteau, and then Corrado Cagli, who was staying in Rome at the time and whose return was uncertain. Finally, the choice fell on the Japanese-American sculptor Isamu Noguchi, whom Kirstein described in his letter to Strawinsky dated 4th January 1948 as an artist, who was not greatly original, but could work well with light and space, and that was just what Balanchine was looking for. Noguchi chose elegantly formed lyres and golden masks, which also played a pivotal role in the choreography. Pluto symbolises Hell, but was not portrayed as Greek but Indian as the goddess Kali, who normally appears with long hair, a beard, decapitated heads dangling around her throat, a sword in one hand and a head dripping blood in the other. For Hell, Noguchi built giant flames and bones. Much fuss was made about the colossal white fog curtain made of Chinese silk, which was to separate the Over- and Underworld and the separate scenes from one another; at one thousand dollars, it was quite expensive and it was bought at the last minute. It was kept in constant movement by aimed streams of air so that it appeared to be alive. Noguchi chose pale costume and stage colours in the areas of Rose, Gold, Azure and Black. In the moment in which Pluto gives Eurydice back her life, Noguchi used a banner-like blue beam which made one perceive heaven to be above Hades. The lighting design was also an integrated part of the set and choreography. Orpheus’s lyre was depicted as oversized and large, likewise the masks which Strawinsky, enthusiastic about the set, felt to be somewhat too ethnographic; by this, he presumably meant too folkloristic and fantastical. In fact, they made it difficult for the dancers to see the ground and thus also hindered rhythmic coordination, and so were not completely practical. They were regarded as Freudian. Orpheus resembled a baseball catcher and had a long, undulating mane of hair down his back. At the various meetings between Balanchine and Strawinsky, they mainly discussed matters of the sequence of the plot and durations, not compositional problems of structure, in which Balanchine was only peripherally interested, and in which Strawinsky had never allowed him to express any interest in, as was his manner. All reports of their collaboration eventually lead back to the problems of time. Strawinsky only ever wanted to know from Balanchine how long the piece should last so that he could adjust his composition accordingly. He probably took into consideration certain wishes, but tolerated no interference in his work. Balanchine came to Hollywood again around or after the start of the year 1948 for the last discussion about Orpheus, and aimed to reach an agreement with Strawinsky. The Los Angeles Times also published an interview with Balanchine on 4th January 1948 and quoted the choreographer making the observation that he did not want develop a choreography and have some music written to it, but preferably he would have the music, at the rehearsals of which he would be able to write his choreography. Since Balanchine was in a stage of experimenting with body positions in extreme situations, and as certain positions could only be held for a short period of time, the schemata for the durations of the music were important to the composer. In this matter, the actual collaboration was between Balanchine and Strawinsky. –

Strawinsky himself placed value on a extra-temporal setting and on a non-Greek performance structure. The location should not be somewhere in Greece, and it should certainly not have an antique and mythical feel, especially no Doric backdrop. As an example, Strawinsky used the example in a radio broadcast on New York Radio on 1st November 1949 of when the painters of the Renaissance painted depictions of Ancient Greece, they would have used the landscapes and costumes of their own time. Representatively, what should be used is only what continues to speak to the thoughts of our present time from the Orpheus myth. Strawinsky himself had no thoughts for the costumes. On the matter of the style of dancing in the choreography of Orpheus, little has been written, and most about the structure of the plot, which can be more easily described. –

The greatest innovation in terms of the dance was the Pas de deux at the Descent of the Angel of Death and Orpheus into the Underworld, because it is a Pas de deux by two male dancers, a choreographic idea that had not existed since the Baroque. Furthermore, Kirstein gave an account of the conception of the background of the choreography for Orpheus. The forest creatures, the happily leaping fauns, satyrs and dryads, were set against the personal tragedy, just as Nature continues to survive despite death and suffering. The black angel binds Orpheus to him inseparably with a black cord. A huge cloud descends and Orpheus is sent to the Underworld with his lyre, which is bound to his person inseparably. It is Eurydice who convinces Orpheus to embrace her. The lyre is torn from him exactly at the moment when he needs it the most, and a hundred invisible hands take Eurydice back. In the final scene, a laurel tree grows out of the grave and represents the victory. Apollo gilds Orpheus’s lyre with eternal light. Balanchine saw the Dark Angel as the messenger of God like Hermes/Mercury, who acts as messenger between the World and the Underworld. He is the leader of the souls of the Dead. The question still remains as to whether Orpheus is essentially not already dead. In the Middle Ages, as Balanchine believed, Mercury was transformed from a messenger into a demon, and Balanchine took up this idea. For him, the connection between Orpheus with the Angel of Death was of the same significance as the relationship of Orpheus to Eurydice. For him, Orpheus was less a warrior than a poet, who was restless, imprudent and rash, but also resourceful. He brought the Maenads from their senses as a result of his pride in wanting to love only Eurydice. The parts of his dismembered body that swim in the ‘Stream of Time’ still have validity. He included all these thoughts in his choreography, which turned into a ritual as a result of this.

Subsequent productions

a) Balanchine

1950 London

1952 Paris

1953 Florenz

1953 Mailand

1962 Hamburg; 5th June; Conductor: Leopold Ludwig

1964 Mailand

b) Other Choreographers

1948 Paris; David Lichine (Design: Mayo)

1948 Venedig; Aurel von Miloss

1948 Wien

1949 München; Staatsoper; Rudolf Kölling

1954 Wuppertal; Erich Walter

1955 Hannover; Yvonne Georgi

1956 Berlin; Städtische Oper; Erich Walter; Set design: Heinrich Wendel

1961 Frankfurt; Tatjana Gsowsky

1961 Leningrad; Leningrader Oper (Kremlinplatz); Leningrader Opernballett

1970 Gelsenkirchen; B. Pilato

1970 Halle; H. Haas

1970 Koblenz; W. Winter

1970 Rheydt; U. Schulbin

1970 Stuttgart; John Cranko

1970 Zwickau; G. Buch

e) Film adaptations

1956 Deutsches Fernsehen; Marcel Luitpart

Problems of interpretation: Strawinsky’s and Balanchine’s conceptions of the plot were, as was often the case, different. The two men were united in wishing to go in the direction of abstraction. Strawinsky’s conceptions were also always directed towards the Afterlife, a model which was not valid for Balanchine, as he would be in danger of setting theatrical attitudes, invoking gods in which he not only did not believe, but about whom he knew that they didn’t exist. Balanchine therefore built a set design around Apollo, while Strawinsky only saw the symbol of Orpheus as a diachronic allegory that required structure, but not theatricality. Tschelitschev was correct when he said that Balanchine was only concerned with good dance theatre. Strawinsky’s spiritual background was incomparably deeper; at the time of the composition of Orpheus, he had long left behind the belief of the immortality of music in the context of the overcoming of Death, as he did during the composition of Nightingale. It was however for him an almost iron rule never to get involved with choreography or set design, and not even if he didn’t like them, what he was saying but not necessarily with the intention of changing it. Strawinsky trot his own path, knowing that a non-musician finds it more difficult to understand a piece of music than a non-dancer to understand a choreography or set design, so that he was able to compose things into the music which run contrary to what the director actually wanted. For this reason, the features of the musical material often contradict, as can be seen from the analysis of the work, the realization on stage, even if it is not ‘director’s theatre’, which generally does not concern itself with the ideas of writers and composers. This refers to the direction of the structure as well as to the detail and leads to structural problems, as in the case of Orpheus. The second interlude, for example, can be seen as a scene of Orpheus in despair, who alone with his grief wishes again to break through the curtain of fog in the Overworld; it can be seen also as a preparatory scene for the scene of the Bacchantes, and it brings the leader of the Maenads onto the stage to tear off his mask, a directorial invention of Balanchine which did not come from Strawinsky. The sound of the harp in Orpheus’s and Eurydice’s Pas de deux at figures 116 3and 117 2-3is no contradiction of the original, i.e. that Orpheus had lost his lyre to the Angel and would therefore not be able to play it. The lyre does not indeed play, but is only heard. Eurydice is close to her goal of moving Orpheus to tear off his mask and look at her. At this point in the ballet, it can be seen that the Angel is not the bringer of Death, but is there to help. He sees that the two humans are approaching a catastrophe and tries to warn them. He therefore has the lyre play for a short time at first, then, when Eurydice and Orpheus do not hear, somewhat longer as a warning signal. The only thing that is problematic in terms of interpretation is ostensibly the use of the solo Flute and solo Clarinet in relation to the plot. It was suggested in Balanchine’s pantomime that Eurydice in this scene takes up an invisible flute, with the allocation Flute = Eurydice and Clarinet = Orpheus, if this would make sense both choreographically and compositionally at the same time. It is indisputable that in this section Eurydice seeks to seduce Orpheus with good intentions. In this section however, the clarinet dominates at first, not the flute, which is given a repeating melodic phrase, and this can be interpreted either as a gestural affirmation or negation. The solo flute enters first at figure 114 3and from here, there is a solo duet between the flute and clarinet. The scene can therefore be interpreted that the happiness at the beginning is not the beginning of the seduction scene, but Eurydice’s behaviour stems from the happiness of the certainty that she is going home, which then turns into the joyfulness of the seduction. So in fact from figure 114 3, the flute stands for Eurydice and the clarinet for Orpheus, and it is Orpheus who is warned by the Angel without, and then with, but not with lasting success. There is one puzzle contained in the sketches. In one sketch belonging to the Pas d’action [XII] dated 8th July 1947, Strawinsky wrote next to the two fortissimo chords in bars 1 and 3 which are marked with a red arrow the English word ‘harp’. Either Strawinsky originally intended to introduce music in the harp here which he then removed, because according to Balanchine’s ideas in the choreography, the lyre has been taken from Orpheus, or else he identified the two pizzicato chords with the sound of the harp. The subsequent recitative melodic line is derived from the chords by means of permutations and extensions.

Remarks: The ballet Orpheus was a commission from Lincoln Kirstein for his School of American Ballet in New York. On 7th May 1946, Kirstein sent Strawinsky a cheque for 2,500 dollars, half of the agreed fee, from which can be concluded that by this point the prenegotations for the commission and its realization, which were taking place via Balanchine, had been settled. Kirstein told Strawinsky about his ballet school, which was a private institution without outside financial support, and showed his pride about the fact that his School of American Ballet had made a gigantic step forward in its history with this first compositional commission. In fact, the international path of success of this ballet company began with the commission of Orpheus; out of this company came the New York City Ballet and the American Ballet, which was eventually taken over by the Metropolitan Opera. As Strawinsky stated to his representative Ralph Hawkes on 13th October 1947, Kirstein was only contractually in possession of the exclusive rights to the première.

Influences: Contemporary criticism, as is usual everywhere for Strawinsky’s music, looked in the music of Orpheus as well for influences and reminiscences and struck gold at figure 38, before figures 14 6and 14 8, as well as in the final scene in certain bars. According to them, figure 38 is a reference to Charles Ives, the arpeggios before figures 14 6and 14 8 to Carl Czerny and the final scene to Monteverdi. Strawinsky, who was at the time of composition 65 years old, heard about this and rejected these findings with a contemptuous undertone. Strawinsky was spending a great deal of time at that period with the music of Monteverdi, Gesualdo and their contemporaries. The traces of these studies, as a result of a systematic, musicologically defined reawakening of old music in the sense of a technical phenomenon, are visible in Strawinsky’s subsequent works as well, certainly in the form of an accurate allocation of bars. Strawinsky admitted that he understood the dotted rhythm as a topic of the music of the 18th Century, and he confirmed at the same time that he was examining the music of Gluck’s Orpheus not before 1952. The proximity to Bach in Orpheus’ s Dance also became visible in many other slow movements from his Neo-Classical period, but attracted more than passing attention in the Orpheus ballet.

Success: In addition to the success of the première for Kirstein personally, with its subsequent support from Morton Baum, Orpheus became one of Strawinsky’s successful ballets. That is why the number of subsequent performances of the ballet was remarkable. This is also true for England, where the Press were very unpleasant toward Kirstein and the Americans in 1950, even when the success could not be rationalized away; they wanted no doubt to charge the Americans with a deficient culture. In his report to Strawinsky from 23 rdAugust 1950 about the ‘Battle of Britain’, Kirstein referred openly to the ‘roaring Oxford-trained idiots’ to newspapers such as the New Statesman and Nation, in comparison with whom the negative American critics Virgil Thomson and Olin Downes, who were little regarded in circles of experts, were ‘Daniels-Come-to-Judgement’.

Versions: The publishing contract between Strawinsky and Boosey & Hawkes was signed on 6th November 1950. The conducting score was published by the beginning of June 1948 at the latest, and the piano reduction, made by Leopold Spinner, was completed in November and published towards the end of 1948. Strawinsky received his copy of the Spinner edition in January 1949. In the Library of the British Museum, the contributory copies for the conducting and pocket scores were entered on 8th June, and the piano reduction on 31st December 1948. Strawinsky later pressed for a reprinting due to the necessary corrections which had previously led to the errata sheet. The production of the errata sheet cannot be dated exactly. Its corrections were later incorporated into the printed score. The proof is difficult, because the publishers undertook changes of this sort tacitly without indicating them, and are not required to give contributory copies of later printings. There are therefore four original editions up to 1971: the first from 1948, the second with the errata sheet included, the third with the corrections incorporated (which made the errata sheet superfluous), and the final edition, which can be recognised by the fact that the title sheet without exception has been anglicized, the original French and English subtitles removed and the name ‘Strawinsky’ rewritten as ‘Stravinsky’. The contributory copies in London H.3992.b.(3.) (conductor’s score) and b.211 (pocket score) contain no errata pages. In any case, the pocket score was reprinted in its corrected form in 1961, but with the old spelling, as an exemplar in the Prussian State Library N.Mus.o.2043 demonstrates, which was published in January 1961. The orchestral material was only ever available to hire. A new edition of the piano reduction is registered for September 1969. One year after Strawinsky’s death Moscow’s Издательство Музыка continued its series of illegal printings, which were legalized in terms of copyright, with a combined edition of Orpheus and Agon .

Historical recordings: New York Manhattan Center 22nd/23rd. February 1949 with the RCA-Victor Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Igor Strawinsky; Chicago 20th July 1964 with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Igor Strawinsky; Moscow 26th September 1962 in the Large Hall of the Conservatory as a live concert with the State Symphony Orchestra of the UDSSR under the direction of Igor Strawinsky. –

It can be seen from a letter by Strawinsky to Robert Craft dated 8th October 1948 that Strawinsky had written to Richard Gilbert with the intention of arranging a vinyl recording of Orpheus with the firm RCA Victor and the Boston Symphony Orchestra, with whom he was to perform the ballet in a public context. Gilbert was however no longer with the firm and his successor had not yet been named. Strawinsky, who did not know that and greatly regretted Gilbert’s departure, received from Richard A. Mohr, who then became the successor, an immediate reply. Then it was only a question of the rehearsal time, of which Strawinsky wanted to have as much as possible, and Mohr, as is usual with publishers, wanted to give as little as possible. The embattled Strawinsky agreed in a letter to Craft of 4th December 1948 to a four-hour limit on 22nd February 1949 for the rehearsal and recording, but demanded a further day on 23rd or 24th February in order to be able to carry out the work in somewhat more humane conditions for the musicians and for himself. The letter, written in English, is unclear because the postscript contradicts the preceding paragraphs. It can however be seen in a letter from Strawinsky to Robert Craft dated 14th December 1948 that the planned recording had been arranged for two three-and-a-half-hour sessions for the 22nd February 1949. On 22nd January 1949, Strawinsky pressed Craft in a letter to make all possible efforts to make available musicians from the Ballet Society for the Orpheus recording. The recording took place in the Manhattan Center, according to the documentation, on 22nd and 23rd February 1949 in New York with freelance musicians.

CD edition: II-3/6-16 (Recording 1964).

Autograph: The score is located in the University of California at Berkeley.

Copyright: 1948 by Boosey & Hawkes in New York.

Errors, legends, rumours, curiosities, stories

The New York City Ballet received support in 1950 for their guest performance in England, above all from the Earl of Harewood, whose wife, Lady Marion Harewood, was none other than the daughter of the very shy (as he was very short) Strawinsky publisher, Erwin Stein from Boosey & Hawkes; she had married into the royal family, which would later cause Schoenberg to refer to his distinguished pupil Stein as ‘Erlkönig’. –

The complete stage design of Orpheus must have been sold by Strawinsky to the University of California in September 1948 for more than half of the original price. This is according to Vera Strawinsky and Robert Craft in 1979. It must therefore have belonged to him and must have not been available for further performances due to its having been sold. –

On 26th March 1958, Strawinsky wrote to David Adams from Boosey & Hawkes, asking him to send a copy of the piano reduction to him, which strangely is missing from his library, along with the Schirmer score of Schoenberg’s Piano Concerto and a piano reduction of it, if there was one. He received the requested items and the invoice for it. He paid for the Schoenberg music, but not for his own. He basically did not pay his publishers for his own compositions if he ever needed a piece himself. It was presumably a newcomer in the office who charged him for it. –

In his book from 1953 The New York City Ballet, Anatole Chujoy related a now famous anecdote that is seen as particularly characteristic of Strawinsky. ‘ “And how long should the Pas de deux between Orpheus and Eurydice last, George?” asked Strawinsky. “Ah” said Balanchine “approximately two-and-a-half minutes”. “Don’t say approximately” snapped Strawinsky. “There is no approximately. Is it two minutes, two minutes fifteen seconds, two minutes thirty seconds or something in between? Tell me the exact time, and I will try to get it as close as possible.”’ –

After the concert performance of Orpheus, among other items, on 2nd October 1962 in the Tchaikovsky Hall in Moscow, there appeared in the Communist CPSU newspaper Prawda (Russian: ‘Truth’) the next day a protest in the name of Socialist Realism against aristocratic music, which would corrupt the Russian national style, as Oliver Merlin writes in Collection Génies et Réalités, Librairie Hachette 1968, p.116.

Editions

a) Overview

76-1 1948 FuSc; Boosey & Hawkes London; 59 pp.; B. & H. 16285.

76-1Straw ibd. [with annotations].

76-1Straw-Err

76-1[65] [1965] ibd.

76-2 1948 PoSc; Boosey & Hawkes London; 59 pp.; B. & H. 16285; Ed.-Nr. 640.

76-2Straw ibd. [with annotations].

76-263 1963 ibd.

76-2[65] [1965] ibd.

76-3 1948 VoSc (Spinner); Boosey & Hawkes London; 33 pp.; B. & H. 16502.

76-4Err [24 corrections]; 8°; B. & H. 16285.

b) Characteristic features

76-1 igor strawinsky / orpheus / full score / boosey & hawkes // Igor Strawinsky / Orpheus / Ballet in three scenes / Ballet en trois tableaux / Full Score · Partition / Boosey & Hawkes, Ltd. / London · New York · Sydney · Toronto · Cape Town · Paris · Buenos Aires (Full score sewn 26.6 x 33 (2° [4°]); 59 [59] pages + 4 cover pages tomato red on light grey green [front cover title, 2 empty pages, page with publisher’s advertisements > Igor Strawinsky <* production date >No. 453<] + 2 pages front matter [title page, legend >Instrumentation< Italian + duration data [>approx. 30 minutes<] English + legal reservations centred partly in italics >Copyright 1948 in U.S.A. by Boosey & Hawkes Inc., New York, U.S.A. / Copyright for all countries. / All rights of theatrical, radio, television performance, mechanical reproduction / in any form whatsoever (including film), translation of the libretto , of the / complete work or parts thereof are strictly reserved <] + 1 page back matter [empty page]; title head >ORPHEUS / ORPHÉE<; author specified 1st page of the score paginated p. 1 below title head with scene description flush right >IGOR STRAWINSKY<; legal reservation 1st page of score below type area flush left >Copyright 1948 in U. S. A. by Boosey & Hawkes, Inc., New York, U.S.A. / Copyright for all countries.< [#**] >All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.<; production indication 1st page of score below type area centre inside right >Printed in England<; plate number >B. & H. 16285<; end of score dated p. 59 centred >Hollywood / Sept. 23rd 1947<; without end marks) // (1948)

* In French, compositions are advertised in two columns without edition numbers and without price information >Piano seul° / Trois Mouvements de Pétrouchka / Suite de Pétrouchka ( Th. Szántó ) / Marche chinoise de “ Rossignol ” / Sonate pour piano* / Ouverture de “ Mavra ” / Serenade en la / Symphonie*°° pour°° instruments à vent / Octuor pour instruments à vent / Partitions pour piano°* / Le Chant du Rossignol / Apollon Musagète / Le Baiser de la Fée / Orpheus / Piano à quatre mains° / Le* Sacre du Printemps / Pétrouchka / Deux Pianos à quatre mains° / Concerto pour piano* / Capriccio pour piano* et orchestre / Chant et piano°* / Deux Poésies de Balmont / Trois Poésies de la lyrique japonaise / Trois petites chansons / Chanson de Paracha de “ Mavra ” / Introduction, chant du pêcheur, air du / rossignol / Choeur°* / Ave Maria (a cappella) / Credo (a cappella) / Pater noster (a cappella) // Partitions pour chant et piano* / Rossignol. Conte lyrique en 3 actes / Mavra. Opéra bouffe en 1 acte / Œdipus Rex. Opéra-oratorio en 1 acte* / Symphonie de Psaumes / Perséphone / Violon et Piano°* / Suite d’après Pergolesi / Duo Concertant / Airs du Rossignol / Danse Russe / Divertimento / Suite Italienne / Chanson Russe / Violoncelle et Piano°* / Suite Italienne ( Piatigorsky ) / Musique de Chambre° / Trois pièces pour quatuor à cordes / Octuor pour instruments à vent / Partitions de poche° / Suite de Pulcinella / Symphonies pour°° instruments à vent / Concerto pour piano* / Chant du Rossignol / Pétrouchka. Ballet / Sacre* du Printemps / Le Baiser de la Fée / Apollon Musagète / Œdipus Rex* / Perséphone / Capriccio* / Divertimento / Quatre Études pour orchestre / Symphonie de Psaumes / Trois pièces pour quatuor à cordes / Octuor pour instruments à vent / Concerto en ré pour orchestre à cordes< [* different spelling original; ° centre centred; °° original spelling]. The following places of printing are listed: London-New York-Sydney-Toronto-Cape Town-Paris-Buenos Aires.

** short distance.

76-1Straw1

The copy from Strawinsky’s estate is on the cover page above and next the title >orpheus< right with >IStr / I dec/°48< signed and dated [° slash original].

76-1[65] igor strawinsky / orpheus / full score / boosey & hawkes // Igor Strawinsky / Orpheus / Ballet in three scenes / Ballet en trois tableaux / Full Score · Partition / Boosey & Hawkes, Ltd. / London · New York · Sydney · Toronto · Cape Town · Paris · Buenos Aires // - (Full score [library binding] 26.5 x 33 (2°); 59 [59] pages + 4 cover pages tomato red on light grey green [front cover title, 2 empty pages, page with publisher’s advertisements >Igor Stravinsky<* production date >No. 40< [#] >7.65<] + 2 pages front matter [title page, legend >Instrumentation< Italian + duration data [>approx. 30 minutes<] English + legal reservations centred partly in italics >Copyright 1948 in U.S.A. by Boosey & Hawkes Inc., New York, U.S.A. / Copyright for all countries. / >All rights of theatrical, radio, television performance, mechanical reproduction / in any form whatsoever (including film), translation of the libretto , of the / complete work or parts thereof are strictly reserved<] + 1 page back matter [empty page]; title head >ORPHEUS / ORPHÉE<; author specified 1st page of the score paginated p. 1 below title head with scene description >First Scene [#] Premier Tableau / Orpheus weeps for Eurydice. [#] Orphée pleure Eurodyce. / He stands motionsless, with his back to the audience. [#] Debout, dos au public, ilne bouge pas.< flush right >IGOR STRAWINSKY<; legal reservations 1st page of score above and next to title head with a text box containing >IMPORTANT NOTICE / The unauthorized copying / of the whole or any part of / this publication is illegal< below type area flush left >Copyright 1948 in U. S. A. by Boosey & Hawkes, Inc., New York, U.S.A. / Copyright for all countries.< [#**] >All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.<; production indication 1st page of score below type area centre inside right >Printed in England<; plate number >B. & H. 16285<; end of score dated p. 59 centred >Hollywood / Sept. 23rd 1947<; without end marks) // [1965]

* Compositions are advertised in two columns without edition numbers, without price information and without specification of places of printing >Operas and Ballets° / Agon [#] Apollon musagète / Le baiser de la fée [#] Le rossignol / Mavra [#] Oedipus rex / Orpheus [#] Perséphone / Pétrouchka [#] Pulcinella / The flood [#] The rake’s progress / The rite of spring° / Symphonic Works° / Abraham and Isaac [#] Capriccio pour piano et orchestre / Concerto en ré (Bâle) [#] Concerto pour piano et orchestre / [#] d’harmonie / Divertimento [#] Greetings°° prelude / Le chant du rossignol [#] Monumentum / Movements for piano and orchestra [#] Quatre études pour orchestre / Suite from Pulcinella [#] Symphonies of wind instruments / Trois petites chansons [#] Two poems and three Japanese lyrics / Two poems of Verlaine [#] Variations in memoriam Aldous Huxley / Instrumental Music° / Double canon [#] Duo concertant / string quartet [#] violin and piano / Epitaphium [#] In memoriam Dylan Thomas / flute, clarinet and harp [#] tenor, string quartet and 4 trombones / Elegy for J.F.K. [#] Octet for wind instruments / mezzo-soprano or baritone [#] flute, clarinet, 2 bassoons, 2 trumpets and / and 3 clarinets [#] 2 trombones / Septet [#] Sérénade en la / clarinet, horn, bassoon, piano, violin, viola [#] piano / and violoncello [#] / Sonate pour piano [#] Three pieces for string quartet / piano [#] string quartet / Three songs from William Shakespeare° / mezzo-soprano, flute, clarinet and viola° / Songs and Song Cycles° / Trois petites chansons [#] Two poems and three Japanese lyrics / Two poems of Verlaine° / Choral Works° / Anthem [#] A sermon, a narrative, and a prayer / Ave Maria [#] Cantata / Canticum Sacrum [#] Credo / J. S. Bach: Choral-Variationen [#] Introitus in memoriam T. S. Eliot / Mass [#] Pater noster / Symphony of psalms [#] Threni / Tres sacrae cantiones°< [° centre centred; °° original mistake in the title].

** Short distance.

76-2 HAWKES POCKET SCORES / IGOR STRAWINSKY / ORPHEUS / BOOSEY & HAWKES / No. 640 // HAWKES POCKET SCORES / ^IGOR STRAWINSKY / ORPHEUS^ / Ballet in three scenes / Ballet en trois tableaux / BOOSEY & HAWKES / LTD. / London · New York · Los Angeles · Sydney · Cape Town · Toronto · Paris / NET PRICE / Made in England // [text on spine:] >No. 640 IGOR STRAWINSKY · ORPHEUS< // (Pocket score sewn 0.3 x13.8 x 18.8 (8° [8°]); 59 [59] pages + 4 cover pages dark green on beige [front cover title with frame 9.5 x 3.8 beige on dark green, 2 empty pages, page with publisher’s advertisements >HAWKES POCKET SCORES / The Standard Classical and Outstanding Modern Works. / Primera edición española de partituras de bolsillo de las obras / del repertorio clásico y moderno .<* production date >LB 291/43<] + 2 pages front matter [title page, legend >Instrumentation> Italian + duration data >approx. 30 minutes< English + legal reservation centred partly in italics >Copyright 1948 in U.S.A. by Boosey & Hawkes Inc., New York, U.S.A. / Copyright for all countries. / All rights of theatrical, radio, television performance, mechanical reproduction / in any form whatsoever (including film), translation of the libretto, of the / complete work or parts there of are strictly reserved. <] + 3 pages back matter [3 empty pages]; title head >ORPHEUS / ORPHÉE<; author specified 1st page of the score paginated p. 1 below scene title and choreographic instruction >First Scene [#] Premier Tableau / Orpheus weeps for Eurydice. [#] Orphée pleure Eurydice. / He production dates motionless, with his back to the audience. [#] Debout, dos au public, il ne bouge pas.< flush right >IGOR STRAWINSKY<; legal reservation 1st page of score below type area flush left >Copyright 1948 in U.S.A. by Boosey & Hawkes, Inc., New York, U.S.A. / Copyright for all countries< [#] >All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.<; production indication 1st page of the score below type area inside right >Printed in England<; plate number >B. & H. 16285<; end of score dated >Hollywood / Sept. 23rd 1947<; without end mark) // (1948)

^ ^ = Text in frame.

* Classical editions from >J. S. BACH< to >WEBER< are listed including the titles of their works in three columns under the headline > classical WORKs <, Strawinsky not mentioned; under the headline >MODERN WORKS< the names of contemporary composers are listed without any titles in four columns from >BÉLA BARTÓK< to >R. VAUGHAN WILLIAMS<, Strawinsky not mentioned. The following places of printing are listed: London-New York-Los Angeles-Sydney-Toronto-Capetown-Paris.

76-263 HAWKES POCKET SCORES / ^IGOR STRAWINSKY / ORPHEUS^ / BOOSEY & HAWKES / No. 640 // HAWKES POCKET SCORES / IGOR STRAWINSKY / ORPHEUS / Ballet in three scenes / Ballet en trois tableaux / BOOSEY & HAWKES / MUSIC PUBLISHERS LIMITED / London · PARIS · BONN · JOHANNESBURG · Sydney · Toronto · New York / NET PRICE / MADE IN ENGLAND // [Text on spine:] >No. 640 IGOR STRAWINSKY · ORPHEUS< // (Pocket score sewn 0.5 x 13.8 x 18.6 (8° [8°]); 59 [59] pages + 4 cover pages dark green on beige [front cover title with frame 9.5 x 3.8 beige auf dark green, 2 empty pages, page with publisher’s advertisements >HAWKES POCKET SCORES / An extensive library of miniature scores containing both classical / and a representative collection of outstanding modern compositions <* production date >No. I6< [#] >I/6I<] + 2 pages front matter [title page, references of origin >This Score was commissioned by Ballet Society for the New York City / Ballet Company. The original choreography was created by George / Balanchine and first performed under the composer's direction.< + legend >Instrumentation> Italian + duration data >approx. 30 minutes< englisch + legal reservation centred >Copyright 1948 in U.S.A. by Boosey & Hawkes Inc., New York, U.S.A. / Copyright for all countries.< justified text italic > All rights of theatrical, radio, television performance, mechanical reproduction / in any form whatsoever (including film), translation of the libretto, of the / complete work or parts thereof are strictly reserved. <] + 3 pages back matter [2 empty pages, page with publisher’s advertisements >HAWKES POCKET SCORES / A comprehensive library of Miniature Scores containing the best-known classical / works, as well as a representative selection of outstanding modern compositions. <** production date >No. 520< [#] >1.49<]; title head >ORPHEUS / ORPHÉE<; author specified 1st page of the score paginated p. 1 below scene title and choreographic instruction >First Scene [#] Premier Tableau / Orpheus weeps for Eurydice. [#] Orphée pleure Eurydice. / He production dates motionless, with his back to the audience. [#] Debout, dos au public, il ne bouge pas.< flush right >IGOR STRAWINSKY<; legal reservation 1st page of score below type area flush left >Copyright 1948 in U. S. A. by Boosey & Hawkes, Inc., New York, U. S. A. / Copyright for all countries< [#] >All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.<; plate number >B. & H. 16285<; end of score dated p. 59 centred >Hollywood / Sept. 23rd 1947<; end number p. 59 flush left >3 · 63 L & B<; production indication 1st page of the score below type area centre inside right >Printed in England< p. 59 flush right as end mark >Lowe and Brydone (Printers) Limited, London<) // (1963)

^ ^ = Text in frame.

* Compositions are advertised in three columns without edition numbers from >Bach, Johann Sebastian< to >Wagner, Richard<, amongst these >Stravinsky, Igor / Agon / Canticum Sacrum / Le Sacre du Printemps / Monumentum / Movements / Oedipus Rex / Pétrouchka / Symphonie de Psaumes / Threni<. After London the following places of printing are listed: Paris-Bonn-Johannesburg-Sydney-Toronto-New York.

** Classical editions from >J. S. BACH< to >WEBER< are listed including the titles of their works in four columns under the headline > classical editions <, under the headline >MODERN EDITIONS< the names of contemporary composers are listed without any titles in four columns from >BÉLA BARTÓK< to >ARNOLD VAN WYK<, amongst these >IGOR STRAWINSKY<. T he following places of printing are listed: London-Paris-Bonn-Johannesburg-Sydney-Toronto-Buenos Aires-New York.

76-2[65] HAWKES POCKET SCORES / ^IGOR STRAWINSKY / ORPHEUS^ / BOOSEY & HAWKES / No. 640 // HAWKES POCKET SCORES / IGOR STRAWINSKY / ORPHEUS / Ballet in three scenes / Ballet en trois tableaux / BOOSEY & HAWKES / LTD. / London · PARIS · BONN · JOHANNESBURG · Sydney · Toronto · New York / NET PRICE / Made in England // (Pocket score [library binding] 13.8 x 18.9 (8° [8°]; 59 [59] pages + 4 cover pages dark green on beige [front cover title with frame9,5 x 3,8 beige on dark green, 2 empty pages, page with publisher’s advertisements >HAWKES POCKET SCORES / The following is a selection of the many twentieth-centurie symphonic works issued in study score format. A complete / catalogue of this extensive library of classical and miniature scores is available on request.<* production date >No. 16a<] + 2 pages front matter [title page, references of origin >This Score was commissioned by Ballet Society for the New York City / Ballet Company. The original choreography was created by George / Balanchine and first performed under the composer's direction.< + Instrumentenlegende >Instrumentation> Italian + duration data >approx. 30 minutes< English + legal reservation centred partly in italics >Copyright 1948 in U.S.A. by Boosey & Hawkes Inc., New York, U.S.A. / Copyright for all countries. / All rights of theatrical, radio, television performance, mechanical reproduction / in any form whatsoever (including film), translation of the libretto, of the / complete work or parts there of are strictly reserved. <] + 3 pages back matter [2 empty pages, page with publisher’s advertisements >Igor Stravinsky<** production date >No. 40< [#] >7.65<]; title head >ORPHEUS / ORPHÉE<; author specified 1st page of the score paginated p. 1 below title head flush right >IGOR STRAWINSKY<; legal reservation 1st page of score below type area flush left >Copyright 1948 in U. S. A. by Boosey & Hawkes, Inc., New York, U. S. A. / Copyright for all countries< [#] >All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.<; production indication 1st page of the score below type area inside right >Printed in England<; plate number >B. & H. 16285<; end of score dated p. 59 centred >Hollywood / Sept. 23rd 1947<; without end mark) // [1965]

^ ^ = Text in frame.

* Compositions are advertised in three columns without edition numbers, without price information and without specification of places of printing amongst these >Concerto for Piano and Winds / Mass / Petrouchka / The Rake's Progress / The Rite of Spring / Symphonie de Psaumes / Symphonies of Wind Instruments<. Place of printing only London.

** Compositions are advertised in two columns without edition numbers, without price information and without specification of places of printing >Operas and Ballets° / Agon [#] Apollon musagète / Le baiser de la fée [#] Le rossignol / Mavra [#] Oedipus rex / Orpheus [#] Perséphone / Pétrouchka [#] Pulcinella / The flood [#] The rake’s progress / The rite of spring° / Symphonic Works° / Abraham and Isaac [#] Capriccio pour piano et orchestre / Concerto en ré (Bâle) [#] Concerto pour piano et orchestre / [#] d’harmonie / Divertimento [#] Greetings°° prelude / Le chant du rossignol [#] Monumentum / Movements for piano and orchestra [#] Quatre études pour orchestre / Suite from Pulcinella [#] Symphonies of wind instruments / Trois petites chansons [#] Two poems and three Japanese lyrics / Two poems of Verlaine [#] Variations in memoriam Aldous Huxley / Instrumental Music° / Double canon [#] Duo concertant / string quartet [#] violin and piano / Epitaphium [#] In memoriam Dylan Thomas / flute, clarinet and harp [#] tenor, string quartet and 4 trombones / Elegy for J.F.K. [#] Octet for wind instruments / mezzo-soprano or baritone [#] flute, clarinet, 2 bassoons, 2 trumpets and / and 3 clarinets [#] 2 trombones / Septet [#] Sérénade en la / clarinet, horn, bassoon, piano, violin, viola [#] piano / and violoncello [#] / Sonate pour piano [#] Three pieces for string quartet / piano [#] string quartet / Three songs from William Shakespeare° / mezzo-soprano, flute, clarinet and viola° / Songs and Song Cycles° / Trois petites chansons [#] Two poems and three Japanese lyrics / Two poems of Verlaine° / Choral Works° / Anthem [#] A sermon, a narrative, and a prayer / Ave Maria [#] Cantata / Canticum Sacrum [#] Credo / J. S. Bach: Choral-Variationen [#] Introitus in memoriam T. S. Eliot / Mass [#] Pater noster / Symphony of psalms [#] Threni / Tres sacrae cantiones°< [° centre centred; °° original mistake in the title].

76-2Straw

Strawinsky’s copy from his estate is signed in black on the front cover title above frame right with >ISTR<. The copy contains corrections.

76-2[71] HAWKES POCKET SCORES / ^IGOR STRAWINSKY / ORPHEUS^ / BOOSEY & HAWKES / No. 640 // HAWKES POCKET SCORES / IGOR STRAWINSKY / ORPHEUS / Ballet in three scenes / Ballet en trois tableaux / BOOSEY & HAWKES / MUSIC PUBLISHERS LIMITED / London · PARIS · BONN · JOHANNESBURG · Sydney · Toronto · New York / NET PRICE / Made in England // (Pocket score sewn 13. x 18. (8° [8°]); 59 [59] pages + 4 cover pages dark green on beige [front covver title with frame 9.5 x 3.,8 beige on dark green, 2 empty pages, page with publisher’s advertisements >HAWKES POCKET SCORES / The following list is but a selection of the many items included in this extensive library of miniature scores / containing both classical works and an ever increasing collection of outstanding modern compositions. A / complete catalogue of Hawkes Pocket Scores is available on request.<* production date >No. 16< [#] >1.66<] + 2 pages front matter [title page, references of origin >This Score was commissioned by Ballet Society for the New York City / Ballet Company. The original choreography was created by George / Balanchine and first performed under the composer's direction.< + legend >Instrumentation> Italien + duration >approx. 30 minutes< English + legal reservation centred partly in italics >Copyright 1948 in U.S.A. by Boosey & Hawkes Inc., New York, U.S.A. / Copyright for all countries. / [justified text] All rights of theatrical, radio, television performance, mechanical reproduction / in any form whatsoever (including film), translation of the libretto, of the / complete work or parts there of are strictly reserved. <] + 3 pages back matter [2 empty pages, page with publisher’s advertisements >Igor Stravinsky<** production data >No. 40< [#] >7.65<]; title head >ORPHEUS / ORPHÉE<; author specified 1st page of the score paginated 1 below description of the scene flush right >IGOR STRAWINSKY<; legal reservation 1st page of the score below type area flush left >Copyright 1948 in U. S. A. by Boosey & Hawkes, Inc., New York, U. S. A. / Copyright for all countries< [#] >All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.<; plate number >B. & H. 16285<; end of score dated p . 59 centred >Hollywood / Sept. 23rd 1947<; end number >M.P. 2.71<; production indications 1st page of the score below type area inside right >Printed in England<, p. 59 flush right as end mark >The Markham Press of Kinhgston Ltd., Surbiton, Surrey<) // [1971]

^ ^ = Text in frame.

* Compositions are advertised in three columns without edition numbers from >Bach, Johann Sebastian< to >Tchaikovsky, Peter<, amongst these >Stravinsky, Igor / Abraham and Isaac / Agon / Apollon musagète / Concerto in D / The flood / Introitus / Oedipus Rex / Orpheus / Perséphone / Pétrouchka / Piano concerto / Pulcinella suite / The rake’s progress / The rite of spring / Le rossignol / A sermon, a narrative and a prayer / Symphonie de psaumes / Symphonies of wind instrunments / Threni / Variations<, without specification of places of printing.

** Compositions are advertised in two columns without edition numbers, without price information and without specification of places of printing >Operas and Ballets° / Agon [#] Apollon musagète / Le baiser de la fée [#] Le rossignol / Mavra [#] Oedipus rex / Orpheus [#] Perséphone / Pétrouchka [#] Pulcinella / The flood [#] The rake’s progress / The rite of spring° / Symphonic Works° / Abraham and Isaac [#] Capriccio pour piano et orchestre / Concerto en ré (Bâle) [#] Concerto pour piano et orchestre / [#] d’harmonie / Divertimento [#] Greetings°° prelude / Le chant du rossignol [#] Monumentum / Movements for piano and orchestra [#] Quatre études pour orchestre / Suite from Pulcinella [#] Symphonies of wind instruments / Trois petites chansons [#] Two poems and three Japanese lyrics / Two poems of Verlaine [#] Variations in memoriam Aldous Huxley / Instrumental Music° / Double canon [#] Duo concertant / string quartet [#] violin and piano / Epitaphium [#] In memoriam Dylan Thomas / flute, clarinet and harp [#] tenor, string quartet and 4 trombones / Elegy for J.F.K. [#] Octet for wind instruments / mezzo-soprano or baritone [#] flute, clarinet, 2 bassoons, 2 trumpets and / and 3 clarinets [#] 2 trombones / Septet [#] Sérénade en la / clarinet, horn, bassoon, piano, violin, viola [#] piano / and violoncello [#] / Sonate pour piano [#] Three pieces for string quartet / piano [#] string quartet / Three songs from William Shakespeare° / mezzo-soprano, flute, clarinet and viola° / Songs and Song Cycles° / Trois petites chansons [#] Two poems and three Japanese lyrics / Two poems of Verlaine° / Choral Works° / Anthem [#] A sermon, a narrative, and a prayer / Ave Maria [#] Cantata / Canticum Sacrum [#] Credo / J. S. Bach: Choral-Variationen [#] Introitus in memoriam T. S. Eliot / Mass [#] Pater noster / Symphony of psalms [#] Threni / Tres sacrae cantiones°< [° centre centred; °° original mistake in the title].

76-3 igor strawinsky / orpheus / piano reduction / boosey & hawkes // Igor Strawinsky / Orpheus / Ballet in three scenes / Ballet en trois tableaux / Piano Reduction / by / Leopold Spinner / Boosey & Hawkes, Ltd. [*] / London · New York · Sydney · Toronto · Cape Town · Paris · Buenos Aires // (Piano reduction sewn 26.6 x 32.8 (2° [4°]); 33 [33] pages + 4 cover pages puce on grey beige [front cover title, 2 empty pages, page with publisher’s >Edition Russe de Musique / (S. et N. Koussewitzky) / Boosey & Hawkes< advertisement > Igor Strawinsky <** >No. 453<] + 2 pages front matter [title page, empty page] + 1 page back matter [empty page]; title head >ORPHEUS / ORPHÉE<; author specified 1st page of the score paginated p. 1 below choreographic instruction flush right >IGOR STRAWINSKY<; legal reservation 1st page of score below type area flush left >Copyright 1948 in U.S.A. by Boosey & Hawkes, Inc., New York, U. S. A. / Copyright for all countries< flush right >All rights of reproduction in any form reserved<; production indication 1st page of score below type area centre centred >Printed in England<; plate number >B. & H. 16502<; Ende-Nummer p. 33 flush right >11·48·L. & B.<) // (1948)

* The copy of the libraries Darmstadt >F/straw10/12707/59< and Basel >62/STRAW/63< contain a stamp there centred right >INCREASED PRICE / 10/6d. / BOOSEY & HAWKES LTD.<.

** In French, compositions are advertised in two columns without edition numbers and without price information >Piano seul° / Trois Mouvements de Pétrouchka / Suite de Pétrouchka ( Th. Szántó ) / Marche chinoise de “ Rossignol ” / Sonate pour piano* / Ouverture de “ Mavra ” / Serenade en la / Symphonie*°° pour°° instruments à vent / Octuor pour instruments à vent / Partitions pour piano°* / Le Chant du Rossignol / Apollon Musagète / Le Baiser de la Fée / Orpheus / Piano à quatre mains° / Le* Sacre du Printemps / Pétrouchka / Deux Pianos à quatre mains° / Concerto pour piano* / Capriccio pour piano* et orchestre / Chant et piano°* / Deux Poésies de Balmont / Trois Poésies de la lyrique japonaise / Trois petites chansons / Chanson de Paracha de “ Mavra ” / Introduction, chant du pêcheur, air du / rossignol / Choeur°* / Ave Maria (a cappella) / Credo (a cappella) / Pater noster (a cappella) // Partitions pour chant et piano* / Rossignol. Conte lyrique en 3 actes / Mavra. Opéra bouffe en 1 acte / Œdipus Rex. Opéra-oratorio en 1 acte* / Symphonie de Psaumes / Perséphone / Violon et Piano°* / Suite d’après Pergolesi / Duo Concertant / Airs du Rossignol / Danse Russe / Divertimento / Suite Italienne / Chanson Russe / Violoncelle et Piano°* / Suite Italienne ( Piatigorsky ) / Musique de Chambre° / Trois pièces pour quatuor à cordes / Octuor pour instruments à vent / Partitions de poche° / Suite de Pulcinella / Symphonies pour°° instruments à vent / Concerto pour piano* / Chant du Rossignol / Pétrouchka. Ballet / Sacre* du Printemps / Le Baiser de la Fée / Apollon Musagète / Œdipus Rex* / Perséphone / Capriccio* / Divertimento / Quatre Études pour orchestre / Symphonie de Psaumes / Trois pièces pour quatuor à cordes / Octuor pour instruments à vent / Concerto en ré pour orchestre à cordes< [* different spellings original; ° centre centred; °° spelling original]. The following places of printing are listed: London-New York-Sydney-Toronto-Cape Town-Paris-Buenos Aires.

76-4Err STRAWINSKY “ ORPHEUS ” FULL SCORE / ERRATA // (1 page format pocket score (8° [8°]) with 24 corrections [5 note examples]; Pl.-Nr. at the bottom of the page flush left >B. & H. 16285<) // [1948]


K Cat­a­log: Anno­tated Cat­a­log of Works and Work Edi­tions of Igor Straw­in­sky till 1971, revised version 2014 and ongoing, by Hel­mut Kirch­meyer.
© Hel­mut Kirch­meyer. All rights reserved.
https://kcatalog.org and https://kcatalog.net

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Further Reading

We intend to publish other documents and works by Helmut Kirchmeyer in the near future and will list them here. If you wish to be alerted, please use our contact form and send us a message. Thanks!


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